CAM 20118

Diagnosis and Medical Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

Category:Medicine   Last Reviewed:December 2019
Department(s):Medical Affairs   Next Review:May 2020
Original Date:May 2013    

Description
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction due to the collapse of the upper airway during sleep. Polysomnography and portable sleep apnea testing (with sensors forrespiratory effort, airflow, and oxygen saturation, or alternatively with peripheral arterial tone (PAT), actigraphy, and oxygen saturation are established methods for diagnosing OSA. Other proposed methods of diagnosing OSA include limited channel home sleep monitors. Conventional medical management of OSA includes weight loss, avoidance of stimulants, body position adjustment, oral appliances, and use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during sleep. Novel treatments include nasal expiratory positive airway pressure and oral pressure therapy.

Diagnosis
For individuals who have suspected OSA who receive home sleep apnea testing with at least three recording channels, the evidence includes randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The relevant outcomes are test accuracy, symptoms, functional outcomes, and resource utilization. RCTs have reported that home sleep apnea testing (with sensors forrespiratory effort, airflow, and oxygen saturation, or alternatively with PAT, actigraphy and oxygen saturation) is noninferior to testing in the sleep lab for adults with a high pretest probability of OSA and absence of comorbid conditions as determined by clinical evaluation. A positive portable monitoring study with channels that include arterial oxygen saturation, airflow, and respiratory effort or alternatively PAT, actigraphy and oxygen saturation has a high positive predictive value for OSA and can be used as the basis for a CPAP trial to determine the efficacy of treatment. A negative home sleep apnea test cannot be used to rule out OSA. Patients who have a negative result from portable monitoring or have a positive study but do not respond to CPAP should undergo further evaluation. The evidence is sufficient to determine that the technology results in a meaningful improvement in the net health outcome.

For individuals who have suspected OSA who receive limited channel home sleep apnea testing, the evidence includes studies on diagnostic accuracy. The relevant outcomes are test accuracy, symptoms, functional outcomes, and resource utilization. The ability to detect clinically significant OSA without sensors forrespiratory effort, airflow, and oxygen saturation, or alternatively without PAT, actigraphy, and oxygen saturation, lacks support in the literature. The evidence is insufficient to determine the effects of the technology on health outcomes.

Treatment
For individuals who have OSA who receive positive airway pressure devices or oral appliances, the evidence includes RCTs and systematic reviews of RCTs. The relevant outcomes are symptoms, functional outcomes, and quality of life. Conventional medical management of OSA includes weight loss, avoidance of stimulants, body position adjustment, oral appliances, and use of CPAP during sleep. A diagnostic sleep study may be followed by a trial of auto-adjusting positive airway pressure to evaluate the efficacy and adjust pressure. Auto-adjusting positive airway pressure or bilevel positive airway pressure may also be indicated if the patient is intolerant of CPAP. The evidence is sufficient to determine that the technology results in a meaningful improvement in the net health outcome.

The policy statements focus on criteria for the diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnea for procedures considered standard of care and are based in part on evidence-based practice guidelines. In addition, clinical input was obtained in 2014, 2010, and 2009 to assess, among other items, the sensors required for portable monitors, diagnosis and treatment of OSA in children, and screening of patients scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery. Informed by clinical input and clinical practice guidelines, testing is indicated for patients who are suspected of OSA, prior to bariatric surgery, for certain pediatric patients, and with type  monitors under certain circumstances.

For individuals who have OSA who receive novel OSA treatments (e.g., palate expansion, expiratory positive airway pressure, oral pressure therapy), the evidence includes an RCT and a meta-analysis of case series. The relevant outcomes are symptoms, functional outcomes, and quality of life. The evidence on palate and mandible expansion devices includes a few small series. Further study with well-designed trials is needed to evaluate this treatment. The evidence on expiratory positive airway pressure devices in patients with OSA has been reported in prospective case series, an industry-sponsored RCT, and a systematic review that did not include the RCT. The main finding of the RCT was a decrease in the Apnea/Hypopnea Index, with minor impact on oxygenation, and a decrease in Epworth Sleepiness Scale score. One comparative trial with historical controls used a positive airway pressure nap to study patients with complex insomnia resistant to CPAP titration or use. Additional study is needed to evaluate with greater certainty the efficacy of this intervention. No evidence was identified on the use of the oral therapy device. The evidence is insufficient to determine the effects of the technology on health outcomes.

Background
OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction due to the collapse of the upper airway during sleep. This causes a drop in blood oxygenation and brief arousal and can occur as frequently as every minute throughout the night. The most common signs and symptoms in adults are snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, and hypertension. Excessive daytime sleepiness may be subjective and is assessed by questionnaires such as the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, a short self-administered, questionnaire that asks patients how likely they are to fall asleep in different scenarios such as watching TV, sitting quietly in a car, or sitting and talking to someone. Daytime sleepiness is uncommon in young children with OSA. Symptoms in children may include disturbed sleep and daytime neurobehavioral problems. In otherwise healthy children, OSA is usually associated with adenotonsillar hypertrophy and/or obesity.

The hallmark of OSA is snoring. The snoring abruptly ceases during the apneic episodes and during the brief period of patient arousal and then resumes when the patient again falls asleep. The sleep fragmentation associated with repeated sleep disruption can lead to impairment of daytime activity. Adults with OSA-associated daytime somnolence are thought to be at higher risk for collisions involving motorized vehicles (ie, cars, trucks, heavy equipment), while OSA in children may result in neurocognitive impairment and behavioral problems.

OSA can also affect the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems.1, For example, apnea leads to periods of hypoxemia, alveolar hypoventilation, hypercapnia, and acidosis. This, in turn, can cause systemic hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary hypertension, and cor pulmonale. Systemic hypertension is common in patients with OSA. Severe OSA is also associated with decreased survival, presumably related to severe hypoxemia, hypertension, or an increase in automobile collisions related to daytime sleepiness. It is estimated that about 7% of adults have moderate or severe OSA, 20% have mild OSA, and the referral population of OSA patients represents a small proportion of patients who have clinically significant and treatable disease.1,

Diagnosis
The criterion standard for a diagnosis of sleep disorders is a polysomnogram performed in a sleep laboratory.2, A standard polysomnogram includes electroencephalogram(EEG), submental electromyogram, and electrooculogram (to detect rapid eye movement sleep) for sleep staging. Polysomnography also typically includes electrocardiography and monitoring of respiratory airflow, effort, snoring, oxygen desaturation, and sleep position. An attended study ensures that the electrodes and sensors are functioning adequately and do not dislodge during the night. In addition, an attendant is able to identify severe OSA in the first part of the night and titrate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in the second part of the night, commonly known as a "split-night" study. If successful, this strategy eliminates the need for additional polysomnography for CPAP titration.

Table 1. Definitions of Terms and Scoring Criteria for OSA

Terms

Definition

Respiratory event

Apnea

The frequency of apneas and hypopneas is measured from channels assessing oxygen desaturation, respiratory airflow, and respiratory effort. In adults, apnea is defined as a drop in airflow by 90% or more of pre-event baseline for at least 10 seconds. Due to faster respiratory rates in children, pediatric scoring criteria define an apnea as 2 or more missed breaths, regardless of its duration in seconds.

Hypopnea

Hypopnea in adults is scored when the peak airflow drops by at least 30% of pre-event baseline for at least 10 seconds in association with either at least 4% arterial oxygen desaturation or an arousal.Hypopneas in children are scored by a 50% or greater drop in nasal pressure and either a 3% or more decrease in oxygen saturation or associated arousal.

RERA

Respiratory event-related arousal is defined as an event lasting at least 10 seconds associated with flattening of the nasal pressure waveform and/or evidence of increased respiratory effort, terminating in arousal but not otherwise meeting criteria for apnea or hypopnea

Respiratory event reporting

AHI

The apnea/hypopnea index is the average number of apneas or hypopneas per hour of sleep

RDI

The respiratory disturbance index is the number of apneas, hypopneas, or respiratory event-related arousals per hour of sleep time. RDI is often used synonymously with the AHI.

REI

The respiratory event index is the number of events per hour of monitoring time. Used as an alternative to AHI or RDI in-home sleep studies when actual sleep time from EEG is not available.

OSA

Obstructive sleep apnea is repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction due to the collapse and obstruction of the upper airway during sleep

Mild OSA

  • •In adults: AHI or RDI of 5 to <15
  • •In children: AHI ≥1.5 is abnormal

Moderate OSA

AHI or RDI of 15 to < 30

Severe OSA

•Adults: AHI or RDI ≥30

•Children: AHI of ≥10

UARS

Upper airway resistance syndrome is characterized by a partial collapse of the airway and results in increased resistance to airflow. The increased respiratory effort is associated with multiple sleep fragmentations, as measured by very short alpha EEG arousals.

Positive airway pressure

APAP

Auto-adjusting positive airway pressure may be used either to provide treatment or to determine the most effective pressure for CPAP

PAP

Positive airway pressure (PAP) may be continuous (CPAP) or auto-adjusting (APAP) or bi-level (bi-PAP). CPAP is a more familiar abbreviation for delivery of positive airway pressure.

PAP failure

Usually defined as an AHI >20 events per hour while using CPAP

PAP intolerance

CPAP use for <4 hours per night for ≥5 nights per week, or refusal to use CPAP. CPAP intolerance may be observed in patients with mild, moderate, or severe OSA

AHI: Apnea/hypopnea Index; APAP: auto-adjusting positive airway pressure;EEG: electroencephalogram; OSA: obstructive sleep apnea; PAP: positive airway pressure; RDI: Respiratory Disturbance Index; REI: Respiratory Event Index; RERA: respiratory event-related arousal: UARS: upper airway resistance syndrome.

Due to faster respiratory rates in children, pediatric scoring criteria define an apnea as two or more missed breaths, regardless of its duration in seconds. In pediatric patients, an AHI greater than 1.5 events per hour is considered abnormal, and an AHI of 10 or more may be considered severe.

A variety of devices have been developed specifically to evaluate OSA at home. They range from portable full polysomnography systems to single-channel oximeters. Available devices evaluate different parameters, which may include oximetry, respiratory and cardiac monitoring, and sleep/wake activity, but most portable monitors do not record EEG activity.

Treatment
Medical management of OSA in adults may include weight loss, avoidance of stimulants, body position adjustment, oral appliances, and use of various types of positive airway pressure therapy (i.e., fixed CPAP, bilevel positive airway pressure, or auto-adjusting positive airway pressure) during sleep. This evidence review, addresses CPAP, oral appliances, and novel devices including the Daytime-Nighttime Appliance (BioModeling Solutions), the mandibular Repositioning Nighttime Appliance (BioModeling Solutions), Provent and Winx. Provent is a single-use nasal expiratory resistance valve device containing valves inserted into the nostrils and secured with adhesive. The Winx system uses oral pressure therapy to treat OSA.

Surgical management of OSA (ie, adenotonsillectomy, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, orthognathic surgery) is discussed in evidence review 701101 (surgical treatment of snoring and OSA syndrome).

Regulatory Status
A variety of oral appliances have been cleared for marketing by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) through the 510(k) process for treatment of snoring and mild-to-moderate OSA, including the Narval™ CC, Lamberg Sleep Well Smartrusion, 1st Snoring Appliance, Full Breath Sleep Appliance, PM Positioner, Snorenti, Snorex, Osap, DeSRA, Elastomeric Sleep Appliance, Snoremaster Snore Remedy, Snore-no-More, Napa, Snoar™ Open Airway Appliance, and The Equalizer Airway Device. FDA product code: LQZ.

In 2014, the mRNA Appliance® (BioModeling Solutions) was cleared for marketing by FDA through the 510(k) process (K130067) for the treatment of snoring and mild-to-moderate OSA. FDA product code: LRK.

Various CPAP devices have been cleared by FDA through the 510(k) process since 1977. Bilevel positive airway pressure devices were first cleared for marketing in 1996. FDA product codes: BZD, MNT.

In 2010, a nasal expiratory resistance valve (Provent®, Ventus Medical) was cleared for marketing by FDA through the 510(k) process for the treatment of OSA. The Winx™ system received marketing clearance in 2012. FDA product codes: OHP, OZR.

Related Policies
10106 Home Apnea Monitoring
20173 Actigraphy
20199 Polysomnography for Non-Respiratory Sleep Disorders
701101 Surgical Treatment of Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

Policy
Diagnosis
A single unattended (unsupervised) home sleep apnea test with a minimum of 3 recording channels with the following sensors: nasal pressure, chest and abdominal respiratory inductance plethysmography, and oximetry; or alternatively peripheral arterial tone (PAT), oximetry and actigraphy may be considered MEDICALLY NECESSARY  in adults who are at high-risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and have no evidenceof a health condition that might alter ventilation or require alternative treatment, ie, central sleep apnea, heart failure, chronic pulmonary disease, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, neuromuscular disorders with sleep-related symptoms, injurious or potentially injurious parasomnias, or narcolepsy. The Policy Guidelines section defines high pretest probability.

A single unattended (unsupervised) home sleep apnea test with a minimum of recording channels as described above, may be considered MEDICALLY NECESSARY as a screening tool in patients who are scheduled for bariatric surgery and have no evidence of a health condition that might alter ventilation or require alternative treatment (see Policy Guidelines section).

Unattended home sleep studies are considered INVESTIGATIONAL in children (<18 years of age).

Repeated unattended (unsupervised) home sleep apnea test with a minimum of 3 recording channels with the following sensors: nasal pressure, chest and abdominal respiratory inductance plethysmography, and oximetry; or alternatively PAT, oximetry and actigraphy, may be considered MEDICALLY NECESSARY in adults under the following circumstances:

  1. To assess efficacy of surgery or oral appliances or devices; OR
  2. To reevaluate the diagnosis of OSA and need for CPAP, e.g., if there is a significant change in weight or change in symptoms suggesting that CPAP should be retitrated or possibly discontinued.

Supervised polysomnography (PSG) performed in a sleep laboratory may be considered MEDICALLY NECESSARY in patients with a moderate or high pretest probability of OSA in the following situations:

  1. Pediatric patients (i.e., <18 years of age); OR
  2. When patients do not meet criteria for an unattended home sleep apnea test as described above; OR
  3. A previous home study failed to establish the diagnosis of OSA in a patient with a high pretest probability of OSA; OR
  4. A previous home study was technically inadequate; OR
  5. Failure of resolution of symptoms or recurrence of symptoms during treatment; OR
  6. When testing is done to rule out other sleep disorders such as central sleep apnea, injurious or potentially injurious parasomnias, or narcolepsy (see evidence review 2.01.99); OR
  7. Presence of a comorbidity that might alter ventilation or decrease the accuracy of a home sleepapnea test, including, but not limited to heart failure, neuromuscular disease, chronic pulmonary disease, or obesity hypoventilation syndrome.

A repeated, supervised PSG performed in a sleep laboratory may be considered MEDICALLY NECESSARY in patients who meet the criteria above for an in-laboratory PSG under the following circumstances:

  1. To initiate and titrate CPAP in adults who have:
  • An AHI or RDI of at least 15 events per hour, OR
  • An AHI or RDI of at least 5 events per hour in a patient with one or more signs or symptoms associated with OSA (eg, excessive daytime sleepiness, hypertension, cardiovascular heart disease, or stroke); .

Note: A split-night study, in which moderate-to-severe OSA is documented during the first portion of the study using PSG, followed by CPAP during the second portion of the study, can eliminate the need for a second study to titrate CPAP (see Policy Guidelines section for criteria to perform a split-night study).

  1. To initiate and titrate CPAP in children:
  • In pediatric patients, an AHI or RDI of ≥ 5; OR
  • An AHI or RDI ≥1.5 in a patient with excessive daytime sleepiness, behavioral problems or hyperactivity.
  1. To assess efficacy of surgery (including adenotonsillectomy) or oral appliances/devices.

Supervised or unattended home sleep apnea tests that do not meet the above criteria are considered INVESTIGATIONAL.

The use of an abbreviated daytime sleep study (PAP-NAP) as a supplement to standard sleep studies is considered INVESTIGATIONAL.

Multiple sleep latency testing is considered INVESTIGATIONAL in the diagnosis of OSA.

Medical Management
Auto-adjusting positive airway pressure (APAP) may be considered MEDICALLY NECESSARY for the titration of pressure in adults with clinically significant OSA defined as those who have:

  • An Apnea/Hypopnea Index (AHI), Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI), or Respiratory Event Index (REI) of at least 15 events per hour, OR
  • An AHI, RDI, or REI of at least 5 events per hour in a patient with one or more signs or symptoms associated with OSA (eg, excessive daytime sleepiness, hypertension, cardiovascular heart disease, or stroke); OR
  • If there is a significant change in weight or change in symptoms suggesting that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) should be retitrated or possibly discontinued.

CPAP may be considered MEDICALLY NECESSARY in adult or pediatric patients with clinically significant OSA.

Clinically significant OSA in adults is:

  • An AHI, RDI, or REI ≥15, OR
  • An AHI, RDI, or REI ≥5 in a patient with one or more signs or symptoms associated with OSA (e.g., excessive daytime sleepiness, hypertension, cardiovascular heart disease, or stroke).

In pediatric patients,

  • An AHI or RDI ≥5 OR
  • An AHI or RDI ≥1.5 in a patient with excessive daytime sleepiness, behavioral problems or hyperactivity.

Bilevel positive airway pressure or APAP may be considered MEDICALLY NECESSARY in patients with clinically significant OSA who have failed a prior trial of CPAP or for whom bilevel positive airway pressure is found to be more effective in the sleep lab.

Intraoral appliances (tongue-retaining devices or mandibular advancing/positioning devices) may be considered MEDICALLY NECESSARY in adults with clinically significant OSA under the following conditions: 

OSA, defined by an AHI, RDI, or REI of at least 15 events per hour or an AHI, RDI, or REI of at least 5 events per hour in a patient with one or more signs or symptoms associated with OSA (e.g., excessive daytime sleepiness, hypertension, cardiovascular heart disease, or stroke), AND

  • OSA, defined by an AHI of at least 15 per hour or an AHI of at least five events per hour in a patient with excessive daytime sleepiness or unexplained hypertension, AND
  • A trial with APAP has failed or is contraindicated for members with greater than 30 AH/hr. For members with greater than 5 and fewer than 30 AH/hr, an APAP trial is not required, AND
  • The device is prescribed by a treating physician, AND
  • The device is custom-fitted by qualified dental personnel, AND
  • There is absence of temporomandibular dysfunction or periodontal disease. 

Note: CPAP has been shown to have greater effectiveness than oral appliances in general. This difference in efficacy is more pronounced for patients with severe OSA, because oral appliances have been shown to be less efficacious in patients with severe OSA than in patients with mild-to-moderate OSA. Therefore, it is particularly important that patients with severe OSA have an initial trial of CPAP and that all reasonable attempts are made to continue treatment with CPAP, prior to the decision to switch to an oral appliance.

The use of CPAP, bi-level positive airway pressure, APAP, and intraoral appliances that do not meet the above criteria is considered INVESTIGATIONAL for the treatment of OSA.

Palate and mandible expansion devices are considered INVESTIGATIONAL for the treatment of OSA.

Nasal expiratory positive airway pressure and oral pressure therapy devices are considered INVESTIGATIONAL. 

Electronic positional obsructive sleep apnea devices/systems including, but not limited, to the Lunoa System™ are investigational and/or unproven and therefore considered NOT MEDICALLY NECESSARY. 

COMPLIANCE DOCUMENTATION
Compliance documentation should be maintained in the supplier's record. This documentation should include that the physician certifies the patient is compliant with the treatment and the sleep disorder has improved based on the treatment AND a recorded compliance document indicating proper usage (≥ four hours per night on 70 percent of the nights during a 30 consecutive day period during the initial 60 days of usage).

Oral pressure therapy (e.g., Winx® Sleep Therapy System) is INVESTIGATIONAL, as there is insufficient evidence in peer-reviewed literaure of its effectiveness and safety.

APAP machines and supplies follow the guidelines in CAM 115 "Durable Medical Equipment."

The following supplies are included in the rental. After purchanse has been met, the replacement supplies are covered based on medical necessity; however, the maximum allowed frequency is below:

A4604  Tubing with integrated heating element for use with positive airway  1 every 90 days 
A7027  Combination oral/nasal mask, used with continuous positive airway  1 every year 
A7046  Water chamber for humidifier, used with positive airway pressure   1 every 6 months 
A7030 CPAP Full Face Mask 1 every year (after 6/1/12)
A7031 Replacement Face Mask interface 1 every 30 days
A7032 Replacement Nasal Cushion 2 every 30 days
A7033 Replacement Nasal 2 pair every 30 days
A7034 Replacement Nasal Application Device 1 every year (after 6/1/12)
A7035 Replacement Headgear 1 every 180 days
A7036 Replacement Chinstrap 1 every 180 days
A7037 Replacement Tubing 1 every 90 days
A7038 Replacement Disposable Filters 1 every 30 days
A7039 Replacement Non-Disposable Filters 1 every 180 days

Continuous Pulse Oximetry for home use is considered MEDICALLY NECESSARY durable medical equipment (DME) for members with any of the follwing indications:

  • When weaning the individual from home oxygen; or
  • To use as a screening test to determine if a polysomnography is indicated; or
  • To monitor individuals on a ventilator at home.

The use of home pulse oximetry is considered NOT MEDICALLY NECESSARY for all other indications, including, but not limited to, the following:

  • Astma Management; or
  • When a change in the individual's physical condition requires an adjustment in the liter flow of their home oxygen needs; or
  • To determin appropriate home oxygen liter flow for ambulation, exercise or sleep;
  • Solely to diagnose sleep apnea.

Policy Guidelines
Specialist Training
Polysomnographiy or home sleep apnea testing should be performed in appropriately selected patients and the test summary results reviewed by a physician who is trained in sleep medicine.

Medical professionals who interpret a polysomnogram or home sleep apnea test should be trained in sleep medicine and should review the raw data from PSG and home sleep apnea tests to detect artifacts and data loss.

Treatment of patients diagnosed with OSA should be initiated and monitored by a professional trained in sleep medicine. It is important to monitor symptoms and adherence to positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment (eg, review of symptoms and device utilization at 90 days with a minimum of 4 hours per night for at least 5 nights per week).

Risk Factors for Obstructive sleep apnea
Although not an exclusive list, patients with all of the following symptoms are considered to be at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA):

  • habitual snoring; 
  • observed apneas; 
  • excessive daytime sleepiness; 
  • a body mass index (BMI) greater than 35 jg/m²

If no bed partner is available to report snoring or observed apneas, other signs and symptoms suggestive of OSA (eg, age of the patient, male gender, thick neck, craniofacial or upper airway soft tissue abnormalities, unexplained hypertension) may be considered. Objective clinical prediction rules are being developed; at present, risk assessment is based primarily on clinical judgment.

The STOP-BANG questionnaire, a method developed for nonsleep specialists, assesses the signs and symptoms of OSA (Snore, Tired, Observed apnea, blood Pressure, BMI, Age, Neck, Gender), has been shown to have 97% sensitivity and 96% negative predictive value (specificity, 33%) for the identification of patients with severe OSA (Apnea/Hypopnea Index [AHI] >30 events per hour). Overnight oximetry has been used by some sleep specialists as a component of the risk assessment but is inadequate for the diagnosis of OSA. Therefore, a follow-up polysomnography (PSG) or home sleep study would still be required to confirm or exclude a diagnosis of OSA.

OSA in Children
The presentation of OSA in children may differ from that of adults. Children frequently exhibit behavioral problems or hyperactivity rather than daytime sleepiness. Obesity is defined as a BMI greater than the 90th percentile for the weight/height ratio. Although the definition of severe OSA in children is not well established, an AHI or RDI greater than 1.5 events per hour is considered abnormal (an AHI or RDI ³10 events per hour may be considered severe). In addition, the first-line treatment in children is usually adenotonsillectomy. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an option for children who are not candidates for surgery or who have an inadequate response to surgery.

Bariatric Surgery Patients
Screening for OSA should be performed routinely in patients scheduled for bariatric surgery, due to the high prevalence of OSA in this population. The optimal screening approach is not certain. An in-laboratory PSG or home sleep study is the most accurate screening method. Some experts recommend a symptom-based screening instrument, followed by PSG in patients who exceed a certain threshold, as an alternative to performing PSG in all patients. It should be noted that there is a high prevalence of obesity hypoventilation syndrome in patients who are candidates for bariatric surgery. Therefore, obesity hypoventilation syndrome should be ruled out prior to home sleep testing in this population.

Significant Weight change
There is no established threshold for significant change in weight. Studies have reported improvements in OSA with an average weight loss of 20 kg or 20% of body weight.

Multiple Sleep Latency Test
The multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) is an objective measure of the tendency to fall asleep in the absence of alerting factors, while the maintenance of wakefulness test is an objective measure of the ability to stay awake under soporific conditions (used to assess occupational safety). The MSLT and maintenance of wakefulness test are not routinely indicated in the evaluation and diagnosis of OSA or in the assessment of change following treatment with CPAP. The MSLT may be indicated in the evaluation of patients with suspected narcolepsy to confirm the diagnosis (often characterized by cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations) or to differentiate between suspected idiopathic hypersomnia and narcolepsy. Narcolepsy and OSA can co-occur. Because it is not possible to differentiate between the excessive sleepiness caused by OSA and by narcolepsy, OSA should be treated before confirming a diagnosis of narcolepsy with the MSLT.

Split-Night Studies
American Academy of Sleep Medicine practice parameters (2005) have indicated that a split-night study (initial diagnostic PSG followed by CPAP titration during PSG on the same night) is an alternative to 1 full night of diagnostic PSG followed by a second night of titration if the following 4 criteria are met:

  1. An AHI of at least 40 events per hour is documented during a minimum of 2 hours of diagnostic PSG. Split-night studies may sometimes be considered at an AHI between 20 and 40 events per hour, based on clinical judgment (eg, if there are also repetitive long obstructions and major desaturations). However, at AHI values below 40, determination of CPAP-level requirements, based on split-night studies, may be less accurate than in full-night calibrations.
  2. CPAP titration is carried out for more than 3 hours (because respiratory events can worsen as the night progresses).
  3. PSG documents that CPAP eliminates or nearly eliminates the respiratory events during rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep, including REM sleep with the patient in the supine position.
  4. A second full night of PSG for CPAP titration is performed if the diagnosis of a sleep-related breathing disorder is confirmed, but criteria b andc are not met.

Categorization of PSG and Portable Monitoring
Full correspondence does not exist between CPT codes and the most current categorization scheme for the different types of studies. The 2005 practice parameters from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine list 4 types of monitoring procedures: type 1, standard attended in-lab comprehensive PSG; type 2, comprehensive portable PSG; type 3, modified portable sleep apnea testing (also referred to as cardiorespiratory sleep studies), consisting of 4 or more channels of monitoring; and type 4, continuous single or dual bioparameters, consisting of 1 or 2 channels, typically oxygen saturation, or airflow. Types 1 and 2 would be considered polysomnographic studies, and types 3 and 4 would be considered polygraphic sleep studies. The terms sleep studies and PSG are often used interchangeably. CPT coding distinguishes between sleep studies that do not include electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring, and PSG, which includes EEG monitoring. PSG is usually conducted in a sleep laboratory and attended by a technologist, but may also be conducted with type 2 portable monitoring. The type of study is further characterized as attended (supervised) or unattended by a technologist. Home or portable monitoring implies unattended sleep studies, typically conducted in the patient’s home. There are no specific codes for remotely monitored home sleep studies. They would likely be reported with the CPT code for the sleep study with the GT modifier (“via interactive audio and video telecommunications systems”) appended. There is no CPT code for “unattended” PSG.

Cardiorespiratory sleep studies without EEG may be called polygraphic studies and can be attended or unattended by a technologist. CPT codes 95807 and 95806 distinguish polygraphic sleep studies that are attended or unattended, but there are no codes that distinguish between type 3 and type 4 sleep studies. A wide variety of portable monitors and proprietary automated scoring systems are being tested and marketed, but the optimum combination of sensors and scoring algorithms is currently unknown. Current recommendations are that the portable monitoring device have 4 channels (oxygen saturation, respiratory effort, respiratory airflow, heart rate) and permit review of the raw data. Type 4 monitors with fewer than 3 channels are not recommended due to reduced diagnostic accuracy and higher failure rates. As with attended PSG, it is important that the raw data from home sleep studies be reviewed by a professional trained in sleep medicine to detect artifacts and data loss.

Coding
CPT: Attended Studies

Code 95807 Sleep study, simultaneous recording of ventilation, respiratory effort, electrocardiogram (ECG) or heart rate, and oxygen saturation, attended by a technologist

Code 95808 Polysomnography; any age, sleep staging with 1-3 additional parameters of sleep, attended by a technologist

Code 95810 Polysomnography; age 6 years or older, sleep staging with 4 or more additional parameters of sleep, attended by a technologist

Code 95811 Polysomnography; age 6 years or older, sleep staging with 4 or more additional parameters of sleep, with initiation of continuous positive airway pressure therapy or bilevel ventilation, attended by a technologist

Code 95782 Polysomnography; younger than 6 years, sleep staging with 4 or more additional parameters of sleep, attended by a technologist

Code 95783 Polysomnography; younger than 6 years, sleep staging with 4 or more additional parameters of sleep, with initiation of continuous positive airway pressure therapy or bilevel ventilation, attended by a technologist.

CPT: Unattended Study

Code 95806 Sleep study, unattended, simultaneous recording of heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiratory airflow, and respiratory effort (eg, thoracoabdominal movement) (Note that this CPT code is identical to 95807 except that the study is not monitored)

Code 95800 Sleep study, unattended, simultaneous recording; heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiratory analysis (eg, by airflow or peripheral arterial tone), and sleep time

Code 95801 Sleep study, unattended, simultaneous recording; minimum of heart rate, oxygen saturation, and respiratory analysis (eg, by airflow or peripheral arterial tone).

These codes differ from code 95806 in the description of a single respiratory sensor (either air flow or peripheral arterial tone) instead of the standard configuration of both respiratory effort and respiratory airflow (ventilation).

Use of overnight oximetry alone would be indicated by CPT code 94762: Noninvasive ear or pulse oximetry for oxygen saturation; by continuous overnight monitoring (separate procedure).

HCPCS
There is a HCPCS code identifying a CPAP device (E0601) and 2 HCPCS codes for bilevel positive airway pressure devices (E0470, E0471). HCPCS codes do not distinguish among fixed CPAP or bilevel positive airway pressure devices and auto-adjusting CPAP devices.

In 2008, Medicare created G codes to facilitate their national coverage decision:

G0398 Home sleep study test (HST) with type II portable monitor, unattended; minimum of 7 channels: EEG, EOG, EMG, ECG/heart rate, airflow, respiratory effort and oxygen saturation

G0399 Home sleep test (HST) with type III portable monitor, unattended; minimum of 4 channels: 2 respiratory movement/airflow, 1 ECG/heart rate and 1 oxygen saturation

G0400 Home sleep test (HST) with type IV portable monitor, unattended; minimum of 3 channels.

There is a HCPCS code for the oral interface used with devices such as the Winx system:

A7047 Oral interface used with respiratory suction pump, each.

The system would be reported using code E0600 (Respiratory Suction Pump, Home Model, Portable or Stationary, Electric) and code A7002 (Tubing, Used with Suction Pump, Each).

Refer to evidence review 10106 for further information on neonatal home cardiorespiratory monitoring (CPT codes 94774-94777). These codes are not appropriate for the diagnosis of sleep apnea in children.   

Benefit Application
BlueCard/National Account Issues
State or federal mandates (eg, FEP) may dictate that all FDA-approved devices, drugs or biologics may not be considered investigational and thus these devices may be assessed only on the basis of their medical necessity.

Weight Loss Programs
Weight loss is frequently recommended for obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Plans may wish to review their policies regarding weight loss programs in general, and determine whether or not such policies should apply to patients with OSA. In some instances, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may also be recommended while the patient is attempting a weight loss program; if the weight loss program is successful, further therapy may be unnecessary. If the weight loss program is unsuccessful, and the patient is not tolerant of CPAP (or auto-adjusting PAP or bilevel PAP), surgical therapy may be considered.

Auto-Adjusting PAP
Based on currently available evidence, health outcomes for CPAP and auto-adjusting PAP appear to be comparable. When it is determined at the local level that a strategy using auto-adjusting PAP is more costly than one using conventional CPAP (as determined by plan pricing, provider charges, and/or other mechanisms) in patients who can tolerate conventional CPAP, then auto-adjusting PAP may be considered NOT MEDICALLY NECESSARYusing the Medical Policy Reference Manual (MPRM) definition of medical necessity. Benefit or contract language describing the "least costly alternative" may also be applicable for this choice of treatment. 

Split-Night Studies
Based on currently available evidence, health outcomes for full-night repeat polysomnography (PSG) and split-night studies for titration appear to be comparable. When it is determined at the local level that a strategy using full-night repeat PSG is more costly than one using a split-night study (as determined by plan pricing, provider charges, and/or other mechanisms), then a separate full-night PSG for titration in patients who can be diagnosed with OSA in the first part of the night would be considered NOT MEDICALLY NECESSARY using the MPRM definition of medical necessity. Benefit or contract language describing the "least costly alternative" may also be applicable for this choice of treatment. 

Home Sleep Studies
Based on currently available evidence, health outcomes for in-home diagnosis/titration for patients with a high probability of moderate-to-severe OSA and no comorbid conditions that would preclude a home study appear to be comparable to in-lab diagnosis and titration. When it is determined at the local level that a strategy using an in-lab PSG as the initial test is more costly than one using an in-home diagnosis as the initial test (as determined by plan pricing, provider charges, and/or other mechanisms) in patients with a high probability of moderate to severe OSA and no comorbid conditions that would preclude a home study, then an in-lab PSG may be considered NOT MEDICALLY NECESSARYusing the MPRM definition of medical necessity. Benefit or contract language describing the "least costly alternative" may also be applicable for this choice of treatment. A follow-up in-lab PSG may be needed if the home recording is technically unacceptable or if the Apnea/Hypopnea Index (AHI) is less than 15 with portable monitoring.

Remote Monitoring
Remote monitoring has the potential to reduce the percentage of failed home sleep studies and thus reduce the need for a repeat study. However, there is no evidence that home sleep studies supervised through remote monitoring result in an improvement in health outcomes compared to unattended sleep studies. When it is determined at the local level that a strategy using remote monitoring is more costly than one using an unattended sleep study (as determined by plan pricing, provider charges, and/or other mechanisms), then a remotely monitored sleep study may be considered NOT MEDICALLY NECESSARY using the MPRM definition of medical necessity. Benefit or contract language describing the "least costly alternative" may also be applicable for this choice of treatment.

Rationale
Evidence reviews assess the clinical evidence to determine whether the use of technology improves the net health outcome. Broadly defined, health outcomes are thelength of life, quality of life (QOL), and ability to function-including benefits and harms. Every clinical condition has specific outcomes that are important to patients and managing the course of that condition. Validated outcome measures are necessary to ascertain whether a condition improves or worsens; and whether the magnitude of that change is clinically significant. The net health outcome is a balance of benefits and harms.

To assess whether the evidence is sufficient to draw conclusions about the net health outcome of technology, two domains are examined: the relevance, and quality and credibility. To be relevant, studies must represent one or more intended clinical uses of the technology in the intended population and compare an effective and appropriate alternative at a comparable intensity. For some conditions, the alternative will be supportive care or surveillance. The quality and credibility of the evidence depend on study design and conduct, minimizing bias and confounding that can generate incorrect findings. The randomized controlled trial (RCT) is preferred to assess efficacy; however, in some circumstances, nonrandomized studies may be adequate. RCTs are rarely large enough or long enough to capture less common adverse events and long-term effects. Other types of studies can be used for these purposes and to assess generalizability to broader clinical populations and settings of clinical practice.

Suspected Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Clinical Context and Test Purpose
The purpose of home sleep apnea tests in patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is to diagnosis the condition and to inform a decision on appropriate treatment.

The question addressed in this evidence review is: Do home sleep apnea tests improve the net health outcome?

The following PICOTS were used to select literature to inform this review.

Patients
The relevant populations of interest are patients with suspected OSA.

Interventions
The tests being considered is home sleep apnea testing. Tests reviewed are multichannel home sleep testing and limited channel sleep testing (auto-adjusting positive airway pressure [APAP],Apnea Risk Evaluation System).

Comparators
The established test for OSA is in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG). Laboratory PSG is a more complex procedure than home testing and more limited in its availability.

Outcomes
The general outcomes of interest are the number of apneas or hypopneas during sleep, measured by the Apnea/Hypopnea Index (AHI), and subjective symptoms of sleepiness, typically measured with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) or the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ) (see Table 2).

Table 2. Health Outcome Measures Relevant to OSA

Outcome

Measure

Description

Clinically Meaningful
Difference (If Known)

Change in AHI

AHI

Mean change in AHI from baseline to posttreatment

Change from severe-to-moderate or mild OSA

AHI success

Percentage of patients achieving success

Studies may use different definitions of success, but the most common for AHI success is the Sher criteria

•Sher criteria include a decrease in AHI of ≥50% and an AHI <20 events per hour

•Alternative measures of success may be AHI <15, <10, or <5 events per hour

ODI

Oxygen levels in blood during sleep

The number of times per hour of sleep that the blood oxygen level drops by ≥4 percentage points

More than 5 events per hour

ESS

Scale ranges from 0 to 24

The ESS is a short self-administered questionnaire that asks patients how likely they are to fall asleep in 8 different situations (eg, watching TV, sitting quietly in a car, or sitting and talking to someone)

An ESS of ≥10 is considered excessively sleepy

FOSQ

30 questions

Disease-specific quality of life questionnaire that evaluates functional status related to excessive sleepiness

A score of ≥18 is the threshold for normal sleep-related functioning, and a change of ≥2 points is considered a clinically meaningful improvement

AHI: Apnea/Hypopnea Index; ESS: Epworth Sleepiness Score; FOSQ: Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire; ODI: Oxygen Desaturation Index; OSA: obstructive sleep apnea.

Beneficial outcomes of a true-positive are effective treatment resulting in a decrease in respiratory events during sleep and a reduction in subject sleepiness.

Harmful outcomes of a false-positive test include unnecessary treatment. Harmful outcomes of a false-negative test include not receiving the correct treatment.

Multichannel Home Sleep Apnea Testing
Balk et al (2011) conducted a comparative effectiveness review for the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) on the diagnosis and treatment of OSA in adults.3, Reviewers found strong evidence that an AHI greater than 30 events per hour is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality, with low or insufficient evidence for an association between AHI and other clinical outcomes. Reviewers found moderate evidence that type 3 and 4 monitors may have the ability to accurately predict an AHI suggestive of OSA and that type 3 monitors perform better than type 4 monitors at AHI cutoffs of 5, 10, and 15 events per hour.

Home sleep testing with three recording channels that include respiratory effort, airflow, and oxygen saturation, but not heart rate, are considered by some, including the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid, to be sufficient for home sleep apnea tests. Corral et al (2017) reported a multicenter noninferiority trial of home sleep testing using a 3-channel monitor compared with in-laboratory PSG in 430 patients.4, Included in the study were patients referred to tertiary hospitals in Spain for suspected OSA, who had snoring or sleep apneas observed by a partner, ESS score of ten or greater, and absence of clinical suspicion of any other sleep pathology. Both groups of patients who were diagnosed with OSA received continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration with a single APAP session at home. The median baseline ESS score was 13 in both groups. CPAP was indicated in 68% of patients in the PSG arm compared with 53% in the home sleep testing group, with the difference attributed to the underestimation of AHI in-home sleep studies. All patients, including those treated with CPAP and those who were not, were assessed at six-month follow-up. ESS score improved by -4.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], -4.8 to -3.6) in the home sleep testing group and by -4.9 (95% CI, -5.4 to -4.3) in the PSG group. With a noninferiority margin of two points on the ESS, home sleep testing was noninferior to in-laboratory PSG.

Section Summary: Multichannel Home Sleep Apnea Testing
Based on this evidence and society guidelines, portable monitoring with a minimum of four recording channels (including oxygen saturation, respiratory movements, airflow, an electrocardiogram or heart rate), or with a device that measures peripheral arterial tone, actigraphy, and oxygen saturation, for the diagnosis of OSA in adults who are at high-risk for OSA improves outcomes, when clinical evaluation and follow-up are conducted by a medical professional experienced in the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders.

Limited Channel Home Sleep ApneaTesting
Use of Auto-Adjusting Positive Airway Pressure for Diagnosis and Treatment Supervised by a Sleep Specialist
Mulgrew et al (2007) published a randomized validation study of the diagnosis and management of OSA with a single-channel monitor followed byAPAP.5, They developed a diagnostic algorithm that had a 94% positive predictive value for moderate-to-severe OSA assessed by PSG. Patients who passed the screening (n=68) were randomized to attend in-laboratory PSG with CPAP titration or home monitoring with a portable APAP unit. No difference was observed between lab PSG and home-managed patients for any of the outcome measures. Senn et al (2006) assessed whether an empirical approach, using a 2-week trial of APAP, could effectively diagnose OSA.6, Patients (n=76) were included in the study if they had been referred by primary care physicians for evaluation of suspected OSA, were habitual snorers, complained of daytime sleepiness, and had an ESS score of 8 or greater (mean, 13.6). At the end of the two-week trial, patients were asked to rate the perceived effect of treatment and to indicate whether they had used CPAP for more than two hours per night and were willing to continue treatment. Patients without a clear benefit of CPAP received further evaluation, including clinical assessment and PSG. Compared with PSG, patient responses showed a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 97%, a positive predictive value of 97%, and a negative predictive value of 78%.

Berry et al (2008) randomized 106 patients referred for a sleep study for suspected OSA at a local Veterans Administration center to portable monitoring followed by APAP or to PSG for diagnosis and treatment.7, Patients were screened with a detailed sleep and medical history questionnaire, and patients on α-blockers or not in sinus rhythm were excluded due to the type of portable monitoring device used (Watch-PAT 100). Of the 53 patients randomized to PSG, 6 (11%) did not have PSG-defined OSA; in the portable monitoring arm, 4 (8%) of 53 patients were found not to have OSA. Treatment outcomes were similar in both groups, with a 7-point improvement in ESS score, 3-point improvement in the FOSQ score, and a machine estimate of residual AHI of 3.5 events per hour in the portable monitoring APAP group and 5.3 in the PSG group. 

Apnea Risk Evaluation System
Ayappa et al (2008) reported on a validation study of a small apnea monitor that is self-applied to the forehead.8, The device measures blood oxygen saturation and pulse rate, airflow, snoring levels, head movement, and head position. The study enrolled 80 individuals with a high likelihood of OSA and 22 with a low-risk of OSA; results of simultaneous Apnea Risk Evaluation System recording and PSG were available for 92 individuals. When healthy subjects were excluded from the analysis, sensitivity (91%) and specificity (92%) were relatively high for an AHI of 15 or more events per hour but dropped considerably with an AHI between 5 and 15 (sensitivity, 97%; specificity, 78%). Five percent of the subjects could not tolerate the device and were excluded from the analysis.

Monitoring of APAP use by daily transmission to a web-based database and review by a research coordinator has been shown to improve compliance to positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy (191 min/d vs 105 min/d).9, For the telemedicine arm of this randomized trial, as reported by Fox et al (2012), the research coordinator reviewed the transmitted data daily and contacted the patient if any of the following were present: mask leak greater than 40 L/min for more than 30% of the night, less than 4 hours of use for 2 consecutive nights, machine-measured AHI of more than 10 events per hour, and 90th percentile of pressure greater than 16 cm H2O. Evaluation by their physician sleep specialist after three months of therapy showed a similar modest decrease in AHI for the two groups (1.6 for telemedicine vs 0.7 for controls).

Section Summary: Limited Channel Home Sleep Apnea Testing
The evidence for limited channel home sleep apnea testing (includes type four monitors) in patients who have OSA consists of studies on diagnostic accuracy. A number of questions remain about the ability of this home sleep apnea tests to detect clinically significant OSA without sensors forrespiratory effort, airflow, and oxygen saturation (or alternatively peripheral arterial tone, actigraphy, and oxygen saturation).

Diagnosed Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Clinical Context and Therapy Purpose
The purpose of medical management in patients who have OSA is to provide a treatment option that is an alternative to or an improvement on existing therapies.

The question addressed in this evidence review is: Does management with PAP, oral appliances, or novel OSA treatments improve the net health outcome?

The following PICOTS were used to select literature to inform this review.

Patients
The relevant population of interest are patients with OSA.

Interventions
The therapy being considered is the medical management of OSA in adults, which may include the use of various types of PAP therapy (ie, fixed CPAP, bilevel PAP, or APAP) during sleep.

CPAP involves the administration of air, usually through the nose, by an external device at a fixed-pressure to maintain the patency of the upper airway. Bilevel PAP is similar to CPAP but these devices are capable of generating two adjustable pressure levels. APAP adjusts the level of pressure based on the level of resistance and thus administers a lower mean level of positive pressure during the night. It has been hypothesized that both bilevel PAP and APAP are more comfortable for the patient and thus might improve patient compliance or acceptance.

Oral appliances can be broadly categorized as mandibular advancing or positioning devices or tongue-retaining devices. Oral appliances can either be "off the shelf" or customized for the patient by a dental laboratory or similar provider.

The Daytime-Nighttime Appliance (DNA Appliance) and the mandibular Repositioning Nighttime Appliance (mRNA Appliance) are customized palate and mandible expanding devices. In addition to the upper-jaw device that is common to both the DNA Appliance and the rRNA Appliance (worn both during the day and night), the mRNA Appliance moves the mandible forward and is worn during sleep. The DNA Appliance and mRNA Appliance systems use 3-dimensional axial springs, which are proposed to gradually expand the upper and lower jaw and airway to treat and eventually eliminate mild-to-moderate OSA.

Other devices being marketed for the treatment of OSA are Provent and Winx. Provent is a single-use nasal expiratory resistance valve device containing valves inserted into the nostrils and secured with adhesive. The Winx system uses oral pressure therapy to treat OSA. Oral pressure therapy provides light negative pressure to the oral cavity by using a flexible mouthpiece connected to a bedside console that delivers negative pressure. This device is proposed to increase the size of the retropalatal airway by pulling the soft palate forward and stabilizing the base of the tongue.

Comparators
The following therapy is currently being used to make decisions about the treatment of OSA. The criterion standard treatment is CPAP or its variants. The major limitation of PAP therapy is poor patient compliance due to the need to wear a face or nasal mask.

Outcomes
The outcomes of interest are a decrease in AHI and oxygen desaturation Index on PSG and improvement in a measure of sleepiness such as the ESS or FOSQ (see Table 2), which are typically conducted within weeks or months.

Positive Airway Pressure Devices
The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) commissioned a task force (Patil et al[2019]) to conduct an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of studies for the AASM (2019) guidelines on PAP for the treatment of OSA.10,11, Meta-analyses of 184 studies indicated that PAP use leads to clinically significant reductions in disease severity (−23 events/h; 95% CI: −29 to −18 events/h), both subjective and objective sleepiness, daytime and nighttime blood pressure, and motor vehicle accidents, and improved sleep-related QOL. The overall quality of evidence for the outcome of sleepiness was high and the overall quality of evidence for sleep-related QOLand for blood pressure was moderate. The quality of evidence on the effect of PAP on cardiovascular events and mortality was low to moderate, with benefits reported in non-randomized studies but not in RCTs. The task force concluded that the potential benefits of CPAP outweighed the harms in symptomatic patients. PAP initiation in the home had equivalent effects on patient outcomes compared to in-laboratory titration, and there were no clinically significant differences in patient outcomes with the use of auto-adjusting or bilevel PAP compared with standard continuous PAP. PAP adherence was improved with the use of educational, behavioral, troubleshooting, and telemonitoring interventions.

The review by Balk et al (2011) for AHRQ concluded that the strength of evidence for CPAP for OSA was moderate based on the large magnitude of effect on the intermediate outcomes of the AHI, ESS score, and arousal index, even though there was weak evidence demonstrating an effect of CPAP on clinical outcomes.3, In addition, reviewers found moderate evidence that APAP and fixed-pressure CPAP result in similar levels of compliance (hours used per night) and treatment effects for patients with OSA. There was moderate evidence that CPAP is superior to mandibular advancement devices in improving sleep study measures.

Evidence-based guidelines from the AASM concluded that CPAP and APAP devices have similar outcomes in terms of AHI, oxygen saturation, and arousals.12,13,14,15, As indicated in the AHRQ report, increased compliance with APAP devices has not been well-documented in clinical trials.16,17,18, Thus, the issues associated with APAP are similar to those for bilevel PAP.

Yu et al (2017) conducted a meta-analysis assessing the association between PAP and cardiovascular events and death.19, They included 10 trials with a total of 7266 patients with sleep apnea. There were 356 major adverse cardiovascular events and 613 deaths observed during follow-up (range, 6-57 months). The analysis found no significant association of PAP with a composite outcome of acute coronary syndrome events, stroke, or vascular death (relative risk, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.53 to 1.13). Trials were grouped according to adherence to PAP (<4 vs ≥ 4 h/d), type of sleep apnea (obstructive vs central), and type of PAP (CPAP vs adaptive servo-ventilation). Meta-regression identified no association between PAP with outcomes for different levels of apnea severity, follow-up duration, or adherence to PAP. As reported by McEvoy et al (2016), the largest trial included in the meta-analysis was the Sleep Apnea Cardiovascular Endpoints RCT, which found no benefit of CPAP on the primary composite outcome of death or hospitalization for cardiovascular events in 2717 adults with moderate-to-severe OSA and cardiovascular disease who were followed for a median of 44 months.20, With a mean duration of adherence to CPAP therapy of 3.3 hours per night, CPAP significantly reduced daytime sleepiness (adjusted difference in ESS score, -2.5; 95% CI, -2.8 to -2.2; p<0.001) and improved health-related QOL and mood. Lisan et al (2019) reported 11-year follow-up of a cohort of 392 patients from the Sleep Heart Health Study who had obesity and severe OSA.21, For the 81 patients who were prescribed PAP therapy, the propensity-matched hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.96) compared to matched patients who did not receive a prescription for PAP. Survival curves indicated that the difference in mortality appeared six to seven years after initiation of PAP. Exploratory analysis indicated that PAP might also be associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular mortality.

An improvement in postoperative outcomes with CPAP was suggested by Mutter et al (2014) in a matched comparison of patients with OSA who had been diagnosed prior to surgery (2640 surgeries), those not diagnosed until up to 5 years after surgery (1571 surgeries), and 16277 surgeries for patients without a diagnosis of OSA over 21 years of available data.22, In multivariate analysis, the risk of respiratory complications was increased for both diagnosed and undiagnosed OSA patients compared with controls (odds ratio, 2.08; p<0.001). The risk of cardiovascular complications, primarily cardiac arrest and shock, was higher in OSA patients not diagnosed until after surgery (relative risk, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.16 to 4.17; p=0.02), but not in those diagnosed prior to surgery (relative risk, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.43 to 1.28; p=0.29); the difference between groups was statistically significant (p=0.009). There was a significant trend toward a higher risk with increasing OSA severity. Study limitations included the inability to determine whether CPAP was used perioperatively, and, because body mass index could not be determined, potential confounding from the close association between obesity and OSA.

Subsection Summary: PAP Devices
PAP devices are accepted therapies for OSA. Studies have suggested that both CPAP and APAP are associated with improvements in sleep architecture. Although PAP has been associated with an improvement in intermediate outcomes in multiple studies, it has not been shown to improve hard cardiovascular outcomes. Interpretation of this finding is limited by the duration of follow-up (from 6 to 57 months) and mean CPAP use (<4 hours per night in the largest studies). Eleven-year follow-up of obese patients with severe OSA from the Sleep Heart Health Study found a reduction in all-cause mortality with PAP use which appeared after six to seven years.

Oral Appliances
A systematic review of the evidence on the treatment of OSA with oral appliance therapy was performed by Ramar et al (2015), as part of an update of practice guidelines by AASM and the American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine.23, Meta-analysis showed that oral appliances reduced the AHI, arousal index, and Oxygen Desaturation Index, and increase oxygen saturation. However, oral appliances had no significant effect on sleep architecture or sleep efficiency. The meta-analysis found CPAP to be more effective than oral appliances in reducing the AHI, arousal index, and OxygenDesaturationIndex, and in improving oxygen desaturation, supporting the use of CPAP as first-line therapy for treating OSA.

Johal et al (2017) reported on a randomized crossover trial of ready-made vs custom-made mandibular repositioning devices.24, Twenty-five patients with mild-to-moderate OSA (mean AHI, 13.3 events per hour; range, 10.9-25 events per hour) were randomized to a 3-month trial of a ready-made or the custom-made device, with a 2-week washout between treatments. An overnight home sleepapnea test was performed at baseline and on the last night of the three-month trial period. Patients used the custom-made device for more nights per week (7 vs 3, p=0.004) and hours per night (5 vs 3, p=0.006) than the ready-made device. Treatment response (AHI <5 events per hour) was obtained in 64% of patients during use of the custom-made device phase compared with a 24% response rate using the ready-made device (p<0.001). Treatment failure (<50% reduction in AHI) was more frequent with the ready-made device (36%) than with the custom device (4%), while an ESS score of at least 10 was more frequent during the ready-made phase (66%) than with the custom-made phase (33%). An improvement in the QOL was observed only during the custom-made device phase.

In the AHRQ report (2011) on the diagnosis and treatment of OSA in adults, the strength of the evidence that mandibular advancement devices improve sleep apnea signs and symptoms was rated moderate.3,

Subsection Summary: Oral Appliances
Custom oral appliances, which may include mandibular repositioning or tongue-retaining devices, are an accepted therapy for mild-to-moderate OSA. A 2015 meta-analysis found the efficacy of oral appliances for measures of OSA but they were less effective than CPAP. The strength of evidence for mandibular repositioning devices was rated as moderate by AHRQ.

Novel OSA Treatments
Palate and Mandible Expansion
Singh et al (2016) reported on a series of 15 consecutive patients with severe sleep apnea who were treated with a DNA Appliance or mRNA Appliance.25, All patients had failed to comply with CPAP. Pre- and posttreatment AHI was assessed in a home sleepapnea test without the oral appliance. AHI decreased from a mean 45.9 events per hour to 16.5 (p<0.01) after a mean 9.7 months of treatment. Singh et al (2016) and Cress (2017) reported on a series of 19 patients who had mild-to-moderate OSA who were treated with a DNA or mRNA Appliance.26, Only patients who complied with oral appliance wear were included in the study. The mean AHI was reduced from 12.85 to 6.2 events per hour (p<0.001) without the appliance while the Oxygen Saturation Index improved from 6.3% to 2.6% (p<0.001). Limitations of these studies included the use of a home sleepapnea test rather than the more accurate laboratory PSG, uncertain blinding of the physician evaluating the sleep study, the small number of patients studied, the lack of intention-to-treat analysis, and the lack of long-term follow-up.

PAP-NAP
Krakow et al (2008) reported on the use of a daytime abbreviated sleep study to acclimate patients with complex insomnia to PAP.27, Patients had been referred by psychiatrists or primary care physicians for unspecified insomnia conditions, insomnia due to a mental disorder, or hypnotic dependence. Nearly all patients had anxiety, fear, and/or resistance regarding PAP therapy or the diagnosis of OSA. Thirty-nine patients who would not complete a titration protocol (full-night or split-night) were offered a daytime procedure (PAP-NAP) prior to night-time titration. The PAP-NAP protocol had five components: pretest instructions to maximize chances for daytime napping; introduction of PAP therapy addressing barriers to use; type 3 monitoring hookup (ten channels without electroencephalography leads); PAP therapy during one to two hours in bed in which the patient had the opportunity to fall asleep with the mask in place; and posttest follow-up. Thirty-five of 39 nap-tested patients subsequently scheduled and completed an overnight titration or split-night study with full PSG. The effect of the PAP-NAP intervention on compliance was compared with historical controls (n=38) who had insomnia, mental health conditions, and OSA with resistance to CPAP who completed titration. A prescription for PAP therapy was filled by 85% of the PAP-NAP group compared with 35% of controls. Regular use during a 30-day period was recorded by the PAP device in 67% of the intervention group and in 23% of controls. Adherence, defined as at least 5 days a week with an average of at least 4 hours a day, was 56% in the PAP-NAP group and 17% in controls.

Nasal Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure
Evidence on nasalEPAP includes a moderately sized RCT and a systematic review of the Provent device. Berry et al (2011) reported on an industry-sponsored multicenter, double-blind, randomized sham-controlled trial of EPAP.28, Two hundred fifty patients with OSA and an AHI of 10 or more events per hour were randomized to nasal EPAP (n=127) or to a sham device (n=123) for 3 months. PSG was performed on 2 nights (device-on, device-off, in random order) at week 1 (92% follow-up) and after 3 months of treatment (78% follow-up). EPAP reduced median AHI from 13.8 to 5.0 events per hour (-52.7%) at week 1 and from 14.4 to 5.6 events per hour (-42.7%) at 3 months. This reduction in AHI in the treatment group was significantly greater (-7.3% at week 1, -10.1% at 3 months) than in the sham group. Over three months, the decrease in ESS score was statistically greater in the EPAP group (from 9.9 to 7.2) than in the sham group (from 9.6 to 8.3), although the clinical significance of a 1-point difference in ESS score is unclear. Treatment success and oxygenation data were presented only for the 58% of per-protocol patients who had an AHI of 5 or more events per hour on the device-off PSG night. The oxygenation results (Oxygenation Desaturation Index and percent of total sleep time with oxygen saturation <90%) showed small but statistically significant decreases at 1 week and 3 months. Treatment success, defined as a 50% or greater reduction in the AHI or an AHI reduction to less than 10 events per hour (if device-off AHI was ³10 events per hour), was greater in the EPAP group at 1 week (62% vs 27.2%) and at 3 months (50.7% vs 22.4%). Device-related adverse events were reported by 45% of patients in the EPAP group and by 34% of patients in the sham group, with 7% of patients in the EPAP group discontinuing due to adverse events. Overall, the validity of these results was limited by the high dropout rate, and the clinical significance of the results is uncertain.

Kryger et al (2011), in an open-label extension of the randomized study by Berry et al (2011), evaluated 12-month safety and durability of the treatment response in patients who had an initially favorable response to EPAP.29, Included were 41 (32%) of the 127 patients in the EPAP arm of the study who used the device for an average of at least 4 hours per night on at least 5 nights a week during months 1 and 2 and had at least a 50% reduction in AHI, or reduction to less than 10 events per hour, compared with the device-off PSG. Of the 51 (40%) of 127 eligible patients, 41 enrolled in the extension study, and 34 (27%) of 127 were still using the EPAP device at the end of 12 months. Median AHI was reduced from 15.7 to 4.7 events per hour; the percentage of patients who met criteria for success was not reported. The arousal index was modestly decreased (from 23.9 to 19.0). After 12 months of treatment, the ESS score decreased from 11.1 to 6.0. The median percentage of reported nights used (entire night) was 89.3%. Device-related adverse events were reported by 42% of patients, most frequently difficulty exhaling, nasal discomfort, dry mouth, headache, and insomnia. This open-label extension study was limited by its inclusion only of responders and by the potential for a placebo effect on the ESS score. However, the data suggested that some patients might have responded to this device, and the patient compliance data might indicate a positive effect on daytime sleepiness that leads to continued use of the device in about 25% of patients. Additional controlled studies are needed to distinguish between these alternatives.

A systematic review by Riaz et al (2015) identified 18 studies (totaln=920 patients) that had data on pre- and postnasal EPAP.30, Study designs included ten conference papers and eight publications (case series, cohort studies, RCTs). For patients included in the meta-analysis (n=345 patients), AHI decreased from 27.32 to 12.78 events per hour (p<0.001). For 359 patients, ESS score modestly improved from 9.9 to 7.4 (p<0.001). Data from the Berry et al (2011) RCT (described above) were not included in this meta-analysis because mean data were not reported. Response to the nasal EPAP was variable and inconsistent, and there were no clear characteristics (demographic factors, medical history, and/or physical exam finding) that predicted a favorable response.

Kureshi et al (2014) reported on a small (n=14) double-blind, pilot, crossover RCT of EPAP in children to evaluate efficacy and compliance with this new treatment.31, PSG with EPAP or a placebo device showed a significant mean improvement in Obstructive Apnea Index with EPAP (0.6 vs 4.2, p=0.01), but responses varied (three did not improve, two worsened). No other measures were statistically significant in this trial. For responders who used the devices at home for 30 days, adherence was 83% of nights. ESS scores improved from 11 to 7 (p=0.031) and Obstructive Sleep Apnea-18 questionnaire scores improved from 50 to 39 (p=0.028). Other outcome measures did not improve significantly.

Oral Pressure Therapy
No full-length, peer-reviewed studies on oral pressure therapy were identified in the published literature. Therefore, it is not possible to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment based on scientific evidence.

Section Summary: Novel OSA Treatments
The evidence on palate and mandible expansion devices includes a few small cohort studies. Further study with well-designed trials is needed to evaluate this treatment.

The evidence on EPAP devices in patients with OSA has been reported in several prospective case series, an industry-sponsored RCT, and a systematic review that did not include the RCT. The main finding of the RCT was a decrease in AHI with a minor impact on oxygenation and ESS scores.

One comparative trial with historical controls used a PAP-NAP study of patients with complex insomnia who are resistant to CPAP titration or use. This single study of PAP-NAP does not provide sufficient evidence to form conclusions on the efficacy of this approach in improving compliance with CPAP. The patient population was highly selected and the behavioral intervention may be dependent on the specific clinicians providing treatment. In addition, historical controls were used, and they were not well-matched to the study population. For these reasons, the internal validity and generalizability of the results are uncertain.

There is no evidence on the use of oral pressure therapy to treat OSA.

Summary of Evidence
Diagnosis
For individuals who have suspected OSA who receive home sleep apnea testing with at least three recording channels, the evidence includesRCTs. The relevant outcomes are test accuracy, symptoms, functional outcomes, and resource utilization. RCTs have reported that home sleep apnea testing (with sensors forrespiratory effort, airflow, and oxygen saturation, or alternatively with peripheral arterial tone, actigraphy and oxygen saturation) is noninferior to testing in the sleep lab for adults with a high pretest probability of OSA and absence of comorbid conditions as determined by clinical evaluation. A positive portable monitoring study with channels that include arterial oxygen saturation, airflow, and respiratory effort has a high positive predictive value for OSA and can be used as the basis for a CPAP trial to determine the efficacy of treatment. A negative portable monitoring study cannot be used to rule out OSA. Patients who have a negative result from portable monitoring or have a positive study but do not respond to CPAP should undergo further evaluation. The evidence is sufficient to determine that the technology results in a meaningful improvement in the net health outcome.

For individuals who have suspected OSA who receive limited channel home sleep apnea testing, the evidence includes studies on diagnostic accuracy. The relevant outcomes are test accuracy, symptoms, functional outcomes, and resource utilization. The ability to detect clinically significant OSA without sensors forrespiratory effort, airflow, and oxygen saturation, or alternatively without peripheral arterial tone, actigraphy and oxygen saturation, lacks support in the literature. The evidence is insufficient to determine the effects of the technology on health outcomes.

Treatment
For individuals who have OSA who receive PAP devices or oral appliances, the evidence includes RCTs and systematic reviews of RCTs. The relevant outcomes are symptoms, functional outcomes, and QOL. Conventional medical management of OSA includes weight loss, avoidance of stimulants, body position adjustment, oral appliances, and use of CPAP during sleep. A diagnostic sleep study may be followed by a trial of APAP to evaluate the efficacy and adjust pressure. APAP or bilevel PAP may also be indicated if the patient is intolerant of CPAP. The evidence is sufficient to determine that the technology results in a meaningful improvement in the net health outcome.

For individuals who have OSA who receive novel OSA treatments (eg, palate expansion, EPAP, oral pressure therapy), the evidence includes an RCT and a meta-analysis of case series. The relevant outcomes are symptoms, functional outcomes, and QOL. The evidence on palate and mandible expansion devices includes a few small series. Further study with well-designed trials is needed to evaluate this treatment. The evidence on EPAP devices in patients with OSA has been reported in prospective case series, an industry-sponsored RCT, and a systematic review that did not include the RCT. The main finding of the RCT was a decrease in the AHI, with minor impact on oxygenation, and a decrease in ESS score. One comparative trial with historical controls used a PAP-NAP to study patients with complex insomnia resistant to CPAP titration or use. Additional study is needed to evaluate with greater certainty the efficacy of this intervention. No evidence was identified on the use of the oral therapy device. The evidence is insufficient to determine the effects of the technology on health outcomes.

Clinical Input From Physician Specialty Societies and Academic Medical Centers
While the various physician specialty societies and academic medical centers may collaborate with and make recommendations during this process, through the provision of appropriate reviewers, input received does not represent an endorsement or position statement by the physician specialty societies or academic medical centers, unless otherwise noted.

2014 Input
In response to requests, input was received from 7 physician specialty societies (8 reviewers) and 4 academic medical centers (6 reviewers) while this policy was under review in 2014. Input focused on the routine screening of patients scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery. There was a consensus that routine screening is considered medically necessary in this population due to the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with a body mass index greater than 40 kg/m2, combined with the increased rate of perioperative complications in patients with OSA. The input was mixed on whether the use of portable home sleep testing was appropriate for patients scheduled for bariatric surgery. Concerns were raised about the high prevalence of obesity hypoventilation syndrome in this population, which is a contraindication to home sleep testing. Other reviewers considered home sleep testing to be appropriate in patients scheduled for bariatric surgery, with the caveat that obesity hypoventilation syndrome should be ruled out prior to home sleep testing.

2010 Input
In response to requests, input was received from 1 physician specialty society and 6 academic medical centers (8 reviewers) while this policy was under review in 2010. Input focused on the sensors required for unattended home sleep studies and on diagnosis and treatment of OSA in children. In general, reviewers supported the requirement that home monitors measure four parameters, including respiratory effort, airflow, and oxygen saturation, and their use is restricted to adults. Some exceptions were noted for specific situations. The 2010 update included recommendations from reviewers on indications specific to pediatric patients.

2009 Input
In response to requests, input was received from 5 physician specialty societies (6 reviewers) and 3 academic medical centers while this policy was under review in 2009. Professional society guidelines and position statements were also reviewed. In general, input supported the use of polysomnography, portable sleep monitoring tests, multiple sleep latency tests, and continuous positive airway pressure for adults as described in the policy. The update included reviewers' recommendations for clarifications and modifications to the policy statements.

Practice Guidelines and Position Statements
American Academy of Sleep Medicine
The AASM (2017) published clinical practice guidelines on diagnostic testing for adultOSA.32,The AASM provided the following recommendations (see Table 3).

Table 3. Recommendations on Diagnostic Testing for Adult OSA

Recommendation Statement

SOR

QOE

Benefits vs Harms

We recommend that clinical tools, questionnaires, and prediction algorithms not be used to diagnose OSA in adults, in the absence of PSG or HSAT

Strong

Moderate

High certainty that harms outweigh benefits

We recommend that PSG, or HSAT with a technically adequate device, be used for the diagnosis of OSA in uncomplicated adult patients presenting with signs and symptoms that indicate an increased risk of moderate to severe OSA.

Strong

Moderate

High certainty that benefits outweigh harms

We recommend that if a single HSAT is negative, inconclusive, or technically inadequate, PSG be performed for the diagnosis of OSA.

Strong

Low

High certainty that benefits outweigh harms

We recommend that PSG, rather than home sleep testing, be used for patients with significant cardiorespiratory disorder, potential respiratory muscle weakness, awake or suspected sleep hypoventilation, chronic opioid medication use, history of stoke or severe insomnia.

Strong

Very low

High certainty that benefits outweigh harms

We suggest that, if clinically appropriate, a split-night diagnostic protocol, rather than a full-night diagnostic protocol for PSG be used for the diagnosis of OSA

Weak

Low

Low certainty that benefits outweigh harms

We suggest that when the initial PSG is negative, and there is still clinical suspicion for OSA, a second PSG be considered for the diagnosis of OSA.

Weak

Very low

Low certainty that benefits outweigh harms

HSAT: home sleep apnea testing; OSA: obstructive sleep apnea; PSG: polysomnography; QOE: quality of evidence; SOR: strength of recommendation.

The AASM considers a technically adequate home sleep apnea test (HSAT) device to incorporate "a minimum of the following sensors: nasal pressure, chest and abdominal respiratory inductance plethysmography, and oximetry; or else PAT [peripheral arterial tone] with oximetry and actigraphy." The guidelines refer to the AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events for additional information regarding HSAT sensor requirements.

The AASM also issued guidelines in 2009 on the evaluation, management, and long-term care of adults with OSA.33, The levels of recommendation are "standard" (generally accepted patient-care strategy, with a high degree of certainty; level 1 to 2 evidence), "guideline" (moderate degree of clinical certainty; level 2 to 3 evidence), or "option" (uncertain clinical use; insufficient or inconclusive evidence).

Diagnosis

The AASM recommended that patients who are obese, retrognathic, hypertensive, or who complain of snoring or daytime sleepiness should be assessed for presence or absence as well as the severity of OSA using the following methods (standard):

  • Sleep history assessment includes witnessed apneas, gasping/choking at night, excessive sleepiness, total sleep amount, nocturia, morning headaches, and decreased concentration and memory.
  • Physical assessment includes evaluation of respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurologic systems and signs of upper respiratory narrowing.
  • Objective testing, under an AASM-accredited program, and attended by trained technical personnel. The diagnosis of OSA is confirmed if the number of obstructive events (apneas, hypopneas plus respiratory event related to arousals) is greater than 15 events/hour or greater than 5 events/hour in a patient reporting any of the following: unintentional sleep episodes during wakefulness; daytime sleepiness, unrefreshing sleep; fatigue; insomnia; waking up breath holding, gasping, or choking; or a bed partner describing loud snoring, breathing interruptions, or both.
    • In laboratory polysomnography (standard) records electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, chin electromyogram, airflow, oxygen saturation, respiratory effort, and heart rate.
    • Home testing with portable monitors should at minimum, record airflow, respiratory effort, and blood oxygenation.

Treatment with positive airway pressure

  • Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is indicated for patients with moderate to severe OSA (Standard) and mild OSA (Option).
  • Bilevel positive airway pressure can be considered in CPAP-intolerant patients (Consensus).
  • Autotitrating positive airway pressure can be considered in CPAP-intolerant patients (Consensus).

Treatment with oral appliances (OA) is indicated for "patients with mild to moderate OSA, who prefer OAs to CPAP, or who do not respond to CPAP, or are not appropriate candidates for CPAP, or who fail CPAP … (Guideline)."

  • Mandibular repositioning appliance covers the upper and lower teeth.
  • Tongue-retaining device holds the tongue in a forward position.

The AASM (2019) published a clinical practice guideline on the treatment of OSA with positive airway pressure (PAP) that was based on a systematic review of the evidence.10,11, "A STRONG (ie, "We recommend…") recommendation is one that clinicians should follow under most circumstances. A CONDITIONAL recommendation (ie, "We suggest…")
reflects a lower degree of certainty regarding the outcome and appropriateness of the patient-care strategy for all patients."

The AASM provided strong recommendations for the following use of PAP therapy in adults:

  • Use of PAP to treat OSA in adults with excessive sleepiness.
  • That PAP therapy be initiated at home using APAP or in-laboratory PAP titration in adults with no significant morbidities.
  • Use of CPAP or APAP for ongoing treatment of OSA.
  • That clinicians provide educational interventions with the initiation of PAP.

The AASM provided conditional recommendations (suggest) for the following use of PAP therapy in adults:

  • Use of PAP to treat OSA in adults with impaired sleep-related quality of life.
  • Use of PAP to treat OSA in adults with comorbid hypertension.
  • Use CPAP or APAP over BPAP in the routine treatment of OSA.
  • That behavioral and/or troubleshooting interventions be given during the initial period of PAP therapy.
  • That clinicians use telemonitoring during the initial period of PAP therapy.

The AASM and the American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine (2015) published guidelines on the treatment of OSA and snoring with oral appliance therapy.23, The two societies provided a recommendation of "standard" that sleep physicians consider prescription of oral appliance, rather than no treatment, for adults with OSA who are intolerant of CPAP therapy or prefer alternative therapy. The quality of evidence was rated as moderate. "Guideline" recommendations were provided for the use of custom, titratable appliance over noncustom oral devices, that qualified dentists provide oversight, that sleep physicians conduct follow-up sleep testing to improve or confirm treatment efficacy, and that patients return for periodic office visits with a qualified dentist and a sleep physician.

The AASM (2011) published evidence-based guidelines on respiratory indications for PSG in children.34, "Standard" recommendations were made for the following: PSG in children should be performed and interpreted in accordance with the AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events; PSG is indicated when the clinical assessment suggested the diagnosis of OSA in children; children with mild OSA preoperatively should have clinical evaluation following adenotonsillectomy to assess for residual symptoms. If there are residual symptoms of OSA, PSG should be performed; PSG was indicated following adenotonsillectomy to assess for residual OSA in children with preoperative evidence for moderate-to-severe OSA, obesity, craniofacial anomalies that obstruct the upper airway, and neurologic disorders; PSG was indicated for positive airway pressure titration in children with OSA.

The AASM (2017) published a position statement on the clinical use of a home sleep apnea test.35,The AASM indicated that a home sleep apnea test should be ordered by a physician after "a face-to-face examination" to diagnose OSA or evaluate treatment efficacy and should not be used for general screening of asymptomatic populations. The AASM supported the review of raw data and interpretation by aphysician board-certified in sleep medicine, stating that automatically scored data "could lead to sub-optimal care that jeopardizes patient health and safety".

American Academy of Pediatrics
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP; 2012) published guidelines on the diagnosis and management of uncomplicated childhood OSA associated with adenotonsillar hypertrophy and/or obesity in an otherwise healthy child treated in the primary care setting, which updated the AAP's 2002 guidelines.36,37, AAP recommended that all children or adolescents be screened for snoring, and PSG is performed in children or adolescents with snoring and symptoms or signs of OSA as listed in the guideline. If PSG is not available, an alternative diagnostic test or referral to a specialist may be considered (option). The estimated prevalence rates of OSA in children or adolescents ranged from 1.2% to 5.7%. Adenotonsillectomy was recommended as the first-line treatment for patients with adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and patients should be reassessed clinically postoperatively to determine whether additional treatment is required. High-risk patients should be reevaluated with an objective test or referred to a sleep specialist. CPAP was recommended if adenotonsillectomy was not performed or if OSA persisted postoperatively. Weight loss was recommended in addition to other therapy in patients who are overweight or obese, and intranasal corticosteroids are an option for children with mild OSA in whom adenotonsillectomy is contraindicated or for mild postoperative OSA.

American College of Physicians
The guidelines on the diagnosis of OSA in adults from the American College of Physicians (ACP; 2014) recommended that clinicians target their assessment of OSA to individuals with unexplained daytime sleepiness.38,The ACP recommended PSG for diagnostic testing in patients suspected of OSA, and portable sleep monitors in patients without serious comorbidities as an alternative to PSG when PSG is not available for diagnostic testing (weak recommendation, moderate-quality evidence). Inconclusive areas of evidence included preoperative screening for OSA, phased testing for the diagnosis of OSA, and the utility of portable monitors for diagnosis OSA in patients with comorbid conditions.

The ACP (2013) guidelines on the management of OSA in adults recommended that all overweight and obese patients diagnosed with OSA be encouraged to lose weight (strong recommendation, low-quality evidence).39,The ACP recommended CPAP as initial therapy for patients diagnosed with OSA (strong recommendation; moderate-quality evidence), and mandibular advancement devices as an alternative therapy to CPAP for patients diagnosed with OSA who prefer mandibular advancement devices or for those with adverse events associated with CPAP (weak recommendation, low-quality evidence).

American Academy of Craniofacial Pain
The American Academy of Craniofacial Pain (2013) published a position paper.40, It indicated that oral appliance therapy was recognized as an effective therapy for many with primary snoring and mild-to-moderate OSA, as well as those with more severe OSA who cannot tolerate PAP therapies, but that oral appliance therapy has the potential to cause adverse events, including temporomandibular joint pain and dysfunction. The Academy recommended that dentists engaged in, or who want to engage in, the assessment and management of patients with snoring and OSA using mandibular advancement OA be properly trained and experienced in the assessment, diagnosis, and management of temporomandibular joint and craniofacial pain.

American Society of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery
The American Society of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (2012) published guidelines on the perioperative management of OSA (reviewed in October 2015).41, The guidelines noted that while some reports in the literature have recommended routine screening for OSA prior to bariatric surgery, other reports have suggested clinical screening only does not result in any increase in postoperative pulmonary complications after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and that most current surgical practices refer patients with clinical symptoms of OSA for PSG, but do not make this a routine preoperative test prior to bariatric surgery. The Society provided, based on the evidence in the literature to date, the following guidelines on OSA in the bariatric surgery patient and its perioperative management:

1."OSA is highly prevalent in the bariatric patient population….

4.[Patients with moderate to severe OSA] should bring their CPAP machines, or at least their masks, with them at the time of surgery and use them following bariatric surgery at the discretion of the surgeon.

7.Routine pulse oximetry or capnography for postoperative monitoring of patients with OSA after bariatric surgery should be utilized, but the majority of these patients do not routinely require an ICU [intensive care unit] setting.

8.No clear guidelines exist upon which to base recommendations for retesting for OSA following bariatric surgery…."

American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (2011) published guidelines on PSG for sleep-disordered breathing prior to tonsillectomy in children, which included the following42,:

  1. "Before determining the need for tonsillectomy, the clinician should refer children with SDB [sleep-disordered breathing] for PSG if they exhibit the following: obesity, Down syndrome, craniofacial abnormalities, neuromuscular disorders, sickle cell disease, or mucopolysaccharidoses.
  2. The clinician should advocate for PSG prior to tonsillectomy for SDB in children without any of the comorbidities [listed above] for whom the need for surgery is uncertain or when there is discordance between tonsillar size of physical examination and the reported severity of SDB
  3. Clinicians should communicate PSG results to the anesthesiologist prior to the induction of anesthesia for tonsillectomy in a child with SDB.
  4. Clinicians should admit children with OSA documented on PSG for inpatient, overnight monitoring after tonsillectomy if they are younger than age 3 years or have severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index of 10 or more obstructive events/hour, oxygen saturation nadir less than 80%, or both).
  5. In children for whom PSG is indicated to assess SDB prior to tonsillectomy, clinicians should obtain laboratory-based PSG, when available."

American Thoracic Society
The American Thoracic Society (2016) published a statement on the long-term effects and treatment of mild OSA in adults.43, The Society's systematic review concluded:

  • Daytime sleepiness: subjective improvement with CPAP; unclear effect of non-CPAP therapies
  • Quality of life: small improvements seen in different domains in different studies
  • Neurocognition: treatment effects inconsistent.

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (2017) reported on the evidence assessing screening for OSA in adults and concluded that "the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance and harms of screening for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in asymptomatic adults. Evidence on screening tools to accurately detect persons in asymptomatic populations who should receive further testing and treatment of subsequently diagnosed OSA to improve health outcomes is lacking, and the balance of benefits and harms cannot be determined."44,45,

Ongoing and Unpublished Clinical Trials
A search of ClinicalTrials.gov in May 2019 identified over 200 studies on diagnosis and medical management of OSA.

References

  1. Somers VK, White DP, Amin R, et al. Sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease: an American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Foundation Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association Council for High Blood Pressure Research Professional Education Committee, Council on Clinical Cardiology, Stroke Council, and Council on Cardiovascular Nursing. In collaboration with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute National Center on Sleep Disorders Research (National Institutes of Health). Circulation. Sep 2 2008;118(10):1080-1111. PMID 18725495
  2. Kushida CA, Littner MR, Morgenthaler T, et al. Practice parameters for the indications for polysomnography and related procedures: an update for 2005. Sleep. Apr 1 2005;28(4):499-521. PMID 16171294
  3. Balk EM, Moorthy D, Obadan NO, et al. Diagnosis and Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults. Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 32 (AHRQ Publication No. 11-EHC052-EF). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2011.
  4. Corral J, Sanchez-Quiroga MA, Carmona-Bernal C, et al. Conventional Polysomnography Is Not Necessary for the Management of Most Patients with Suspected Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Noninferiority, Randomized Controlled Trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. Nov 1 2017;196(9):1181-1190. PMID 28636405
  5. Mulgrew AT, Fox N, Ayas NT, et al. Diagnosis and initial management of obstructive sleep apnea without polysomnography: a randomized validation study. Ann Intern Med. Feb 6 2007;146(3):157-166. PMID 17283346
  6. Senn O, Brack T, Russi EW, et al. A continuous positive airway pressure trial as a novel approach to the diagnosis of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Chest. Jan 2006;129(1):67-75. PMID 16424414
  7. Berry RB, Hill G, Thompson L, et al. Portable monitoring and autotitration versus polysomnography for the diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnea. Sleep. Oct 1 2008;31(10):1423-1431. PMID 18853940
  8. Ayappa I, Norman RG, Seelall V, et al. Validation of a self-applied unattended monitor for sleep disordered breathing. J Clin Sleep Med. Feb 15 2008;4(1):26-37. PMID 18350959
  9. Fox N, Hirsch-Allen AJ, Goodfellow E, et al. The impact of a telemedicine monitoring system on positive airway pressure adherence in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized controlled trial. Sleep. Apr 2012;35(4):477-481. PMID 22467985
  10. Patil, SS, Ayappa, II, Caples, SS, Kimoff, RR, Patel, SS, Harrod, CC. Treatment of Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea With Positive Airway Pressure: An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and GRADE Assessment. J Clin Sleep Med, 2019 Feb 10;15(2):301-334. PMID 30736888
  11. Patil, SS, Ayappa, II, Caples, SS, Kimoff, RR, Patel, SS, Harrod, CC. Treatment of Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Positive Airway Pressure: An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Sleep Med, 2019 Feb 10;15(2). PMID 30736887
  12. Berry RB, Parish JM, Hartse KM. The use of auto-titrating continuous positive airway pressure for treatment of adult obstructive sleep apnea. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine review. Sleep. Mar 15 2002;25(2):148-173. PMID 11902425
  13. Littner M, Hirshkowitz M, Davila D, et al. Practice parameters for the use of auto-titrating continuous positive airway pressure devices for titrating pressures and treating adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine report. Sleep. Mar 15 2002;25(2):143-147. PMID 11902424
  14. Kushida CA, Morgenthaler TI, Littner MR, et al. Practice parameters for the treatment of snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea with oral appliances: an update for 2005. Sleep. Feb 1 2006;29(2):240-243. PMID 16494092
  15. Morgenthaler TI, Aurora RN, Brown T, et al. Practice parameters for the use of autotitrating continuous positive airway pressure devices for titrating pressures and treating adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: an update for 2007. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine report. Sleep. Jan 1 2008;31(1):141-147. PMID 18220088
  16. Hussain SF, Love L, Burt H, et al. A randomized trial of auto-titrating CPAP and fixed CPAP in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea. Respir Med. Apr 2004;98(4):330-333. PMID 15072173
  17. Marrone O, Resta O, Salvaggio A, et al. Preference for fixed or automatic CPAP in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep Med. May 2004;5(3):247-251. PMID 15165530
  18. Stammnitz A, Jerrentrup A, Penzel T, et al. Automatic CPAP titration with different self-setting devices in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Eur Respir J. Aug 2004;24(2):273-278. PMID 15332397
  19. Yu J, Zhou Z, McEvoy RD, et al. Association of Positive Airway Pressure With Cardiovascular Events and Death in Adults With Sleep Apnea: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA. Jul 11 2017;318(2):156-166. PMID 28697252
  20. McEvoy RD, Antic NA, Heeley E, et al. CPAP for prevention of cardiovascular events in obstructive sleep apnea. N Engl J Med. Sep 8 2016;375(10):919-931. PMID 27571048
  21. Lisan, QQ, Van Sloten, TT, Marques Vidal, PP, Haba Rubio, JJ, Heinzer, RR, Empana, JJ. Association of Positive Airway Pressure Prescription With Mortality in Patients With Obesity and Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea: The Sleep Heart Health Study. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2019 Apr 12. PMID 30973594
  22. Mutter TC, Chateau D, Moffatt M, et al. A matched cohort study of postoperative outcomes in obstructive sleep apnea: could preoperative diagnosis and treatment prevent complications? Anesthesiology. Oct 2014;121(4):707-718. PMID 25247853
  23. Ramar K, Dort LC, Katz SG, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea and snoring with oral appliance therapy: an update for 2015. J Clin Sleep Med. Jul 2015;11(7):773-827. PMID 26094920
  24. Johal A, Haria P, Manek S, et al. Ready-made versus custom-made mandibular repositioning devices in sleep apnea: a randomized clinical trial. J Clin Sleep Med. Feb 15 2017;13(2):175-182. PMID 27784410
  25. Singh GD, Griffin T, Cress SE. Biomimetic oral appliance therapy in adults with severe obstructive sleep apnea. J Sleep Disord Ther. 2016;5:227.
  26. Singh GD, Cress SE. Biomimetic oral appliance therapy in adults with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea using combined maxillo-mandibular correction. J Sleep Disord Manag. 2017;3(1):014.
  27. Krakow B, Ulibarri V, Melendrez D, et al. A daytime, abbreviated cardio-respiratory sleep study (CPT 95807-52) to acclimate insomnia patients with sleep-disordered breathing to positive airway pressure (PAP-NAP). J Clin Sleep Med. Jun 15 2008;4(3):212-222. PMID 18595433
  28. Berry RB, Kryger MH, Massie CA. A novel nasal expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP) device for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized controlled trial. Sleep. Apr 2011;34(4):479-485. PMID 21461326
  29. Kryger MH, Berry RB, Massie CA. Long-term use of a nasal expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP) device as a treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). J Clin Sleep Med. Oct 15 2011;7(5):449-453B. PMID 22003339
  30. Riaz M, Certal V, Nigam G, et al. Nasal expiratory positive airway pressure devices (Provent) for OSA: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Disord. Jan 2015;2015:734798. PMID 26798519
  31. Kureshi SA, Gallagher PR, McDonough JM, et al. Pilot study of nasal expiratory positive airway pressure devices for the treatment of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med. Jun 2014;10(6):663-669. PMID 24932147
  32. Kapur VK, Auckley DH, Chowdhuri S, et al. Clinical practice guideline for diagnostic testing for adult obstructive sleep apnea: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Sleep Med. Mar 15 2017;13(3):479-504. PMID 28162150
  33. Epstein LJ, Kristo D, Strollo PJ, Jr., et al. Clinical guideline for the evaluation, management and long-term care of obstructive sleep apnea in adults. J Clin Sleep Med. Jun 15 2009;5(3):263-276. PMID 19960649
  34. Aurora RN, Zak RS, Karippot A, et al. Practice parameters for the respiratory indications for polysomnography in children. Sleep. Mar 2011;34(3):379-388. PMID 21359087
  35. Rosen IM, Kirsch DB, Chervin RD, et al. Clinical Use of a Home Sleep Apnea Test: An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Position Statement. J Clin Sleep Med. Oct 15 2017;13(10):1205-1207. PMID 28942762
  36. Section on Pediatric Pulmonology - Subcommittee on Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. Clinical practice guideline: diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Pediatrics. Apr 2002;109(4):704-712. PMID 11927718
  37. Marcus CL, Brooks LJ, Draper KA, et al. Diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Pediatrics. Sep 2012;130(3):576-584. PMID 22926173
  38. Qaseem A, Dallas P, Owens DK, et al. Diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in adults: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. Aug 5 2014;161(3):210-220. PMID 25089864
  39. Qaseem A, Holty JE, Owens DK, et al. Management of obstructive sleep apnea in adults: A clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. Oct 1 2013;159(7):471-483. PMID 24061345
  40. Spencer J, Patel M, Mehta N, et al. Special consideration regarding the assessment and management of patients being treated with mandibular advancement oral appliance therapy for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. Cranio. Jan 2013;31(1):10-13. PMID 23461257
  41. American Society of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS) Clinical Issues Committee. Peri-operative management of obstructive sleep apnea. Surg Obes Relat Dis. May-Jun 2012;8(3):e27-32. PMID 22503595
  42. Roland PS, Rosenfeld RM, Brooks LJ, et al. Clinical practice guideline: Polysomnography for sleep-disordered breathing prior to tonsillectomy in children. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Jul 2011;145(1 Suppl): S1-15. PMID 21676944
  43. Chowdhuri S, Quan SF, Almeida F, et al. An official American Thoracic Society research statement: impact of mild obstructive sleep apnea in adults. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. May 1 2016;193(9):e37-54. PMID 27128710
  44. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, Bibbins-Domingo K, Grossman DC, et al. Screening for obstructive sleep apnea in adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA. Jan 24 2017;317(4):407-414. PMID 28118461
  45. Jonas DE, Amick HR, Feltner C, et al. Screening for obstructive sleep apnea in adults: evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA. Jan 24 2017;317(4):415-433. PMID 28118460
  46. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). CMS Manual System: Pub 100-03 Medicare National Coverage Determinations. Transmittal 96. Change request 6048. 2008; https://www.cms.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Guidance/Transmittals/Downloads/R96NCD.pdf. Accessed May 25, 2018.
  47. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). National Coverage Determination (NCD) for Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Therapy For Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) (240.4). 2008; https://www.cms.gov/medicare-coverage-database/details/ncd-details.aspx?MCDId=16&ExpandComments=n&McdName=Thomson+Micromedex+DrugDex+%C2%AE+Compendium+Revision+Request+-+CAG-00391&mcdtypename=Compendia&MCDIndexType=6&NCDId=226&ncdver=3&bc=BAAIAAAAAQAAAA%3D%3D&. Accessed May 25, 2018.
  48. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). CMS Manual System: Pub 100-03 Medicare National Coverage Determinations. Transmittal 103. Change request 6543. 2009; https://www.cms.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Guidance/Transmittals/downloads/R103NCD.pdf. Accessed May 25, 2018.

Coding Section

Codes Number Description
CPT 94660 Continuous positive airway pressure ventilation (CPAP), initiation and management
  94762 Noninvasive ear or pulse oximetry for oxygen saturation; by continuous overnight monitoring (separate procedure)
  95800 Sleep study, unattended, simultaneous recording; heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiratory analysis (eg, by airflow or peripheral arterial tone), and sleep time
  95801

Sleep study, unattended, simultaneous recording; minimum of heart rate, oxygen saturation, and respiratory analysis (eg, by airflow or peripheral arterial tone)

  95806-95811; 95782-95783 Polysomnography and sleep studies code range. See Policy Guidelines for further details
ICD-9 PROCEDURE 89.17

Polysomnogram

  89.18 Other sleep disorder function tests (includes multiple sleep latency test (MSLT))
  93.90 Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (including continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP))
ICD-9 Diagnosis 327.23 Obstructive sleep apnea (organic sleep apnea)
  780.09 Somnolence
  780.51

Sleep apnea (with insomnia)

  780.53 Sleep apnea (with hypersomnia)
  750.57 Sleep apnea, unspecified type
HCPCS  A4604 

Tubing with integrated heating element for use with positive airway 

  A7046 

Water chamber for humidifier, used with positive airway pressure 

  A7027

Combination oral/nasal mask, used with continuous positive airway pressure device, each

  A7028 Oral cushion for combination oral/nasal mask, replacement only, each
  A7029 Nasal pillow for combination oral/nasal mask, replacement only, pair
  A7034 Nasal interface (mask or cannula type) used with positive airway pressure device, with or without head strap
  A7035 Headgear used with positive airway pressure device
  A7036 Chin strap used with positive airway pressure device
  A7037 Tubing used with positive airway pressure device
  A7038 Filter, disposable, used with positive airway pressure device
  A7039 Filter, nondisposable, used with positive airway pressure device
  E0470 Respiratory assist device, bilevel pressure capability, without backup rate feature, used with noninvasive interface, eg, nasal or facial mask (intermittent assist device with continuous positive airway pressure device)
  E0471 Respiratory assist device, bilevel pressure capability, with backup rate feature, used with noninvasive interface, eg, nasal or facial mask (intermittent assist device with continuous positive airway pressure device)
  E0485 Oral device/appliance used to reduce upper airway collapsibility, adjustable or nonadjustable, prefabricated, includes fitting and adjustment
  E0486 Oral device/appliance used to reduce upper airway collapsibility, adjustable or nonadjustable, custom fabricated, includes fitting and adjustment
  E0561 Humidifier, nonheated, used with positive airway pressure device
  E0562 Humidifier, heated, used with positive airway pressure device
  E0601 Continuous airway pressure (CPAP) device
  G0398 Home sleep study test (HST) with type II portable monitor, unattended; minimum of 7 channels: EEG, EMG, ECG/heart rate, airflow, respiratory effort and oxygen saturation
  G0399 Home sleep test (HST) with type III portable monitor, unattended; minimum of 4 channels: 2 respiratory movement/airflow, 1 ECG/heart rate and 1 oxygen saturation
  G0400

Home sleep test (HST) with type IV portable monitor, unattended; minimum of 3 channels

  K1001  Electronic positional obstructive sleep apnea treatment, with sensor, includes all components and accessories, any type.  
ICD-10-CM (effective 10/01/15) G47.33 Obstructive sleep apnea (adult) (pediatric)
  R06.81 Apnea, not elsewhere classified elsewhere
  R40.0 Somnolence
  G47.30 Sleep apnea, unspecified
  G47.8 Other sleep disorders
  G47.9 Sleep disorder unspecified
ICD-10-PCS (effective 10/01/15)  

ICD-10-PCS codes are only used for inpatient services.

  4A1ZXQZ Measurement and monitoring, physiological systems, monitoring, external, sleep, polysomnogram
  5A09357 Extracorporeal assistance and performance, physiological systems, assistance, respiratory, less than 24 consecutive hours, ventilation, continuous positive airway pressure
  5A09358 Extracorporeal assistance and performance, physiological systems, assistance, respiratory, less than 24 consecutive hours, ventilation, intermittent positive airway pressure
  5A0935Z Extracorporeal assistance and performance, physiological systems, assistance, respiratory, less than 24 consecutive hours, ventilation
  5A094757 Extracorporeal assistance and performance, physiological systems, assistance, respiratory, 24-96 consecutive hours, ventilation, continuous positive airway pressure
  5A09458 Extracorporeal assistance and performance, physiological systems, assistance, respiratory, 24-96 consecutive hours, ventilation, intermittent positive airway pressure
  5A0945Z Extracorporeal assistance and performance, physiological systems, assistance, respiratory, 24-96 consecutive hours, ventilation
  5A09557 Extracorporeal assistance and performance, physiological systems, assistance, respiratory, greater than 96 consecutive hours, ventilation, continuous positive airway pressure
  5A09558 Extracorporeal assistance and performance, physiological systems, assistance, respiratory, greater than 96 consecutive hours, ventilation, intermittent positive airway pressure
  5A0955Z Extracorporeal assistance and performance, physiological systems, assistance, respiratory, greater than 96 consecutive hours, ventilation
Type of Service Medical  
Place of Service Outpatient/Physician's office/Home (CPAP only)  

Procedure and diagnosis codes on Medical Policy documents are included only as a general reference tool for each policy. They may not be all-inclusive. 

This medical policy was developed through consideration of peer-reviewed medical literature generally recognized by the relevant medical community, U.S. FDA approval status, nationally accepted standards of medical practice and accepted standards of medical practice in this community, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association technology assessment program (TEC) and other non-affiliated technology evaluation centers, reference to federal regulations, other plan medical policies, and accredited national guidelines.

"Current Procedural Terminology © American Medical Association.  All Rights Reserved" 

History From 2014 Forward    

02/18/2020 

Correcting Typo. No other changes made.

02/17/2020 

Correcting policy verbiage that was removed in error. No other changes made. 

12/04/2019 

Interim review to add code K1001 and add policy statement regarding this technology as not medically necessary. 

10/16/2019

Interim review updating policy to update language regarding home sleep studies. Changing verbiage to home sleep apnea test and updating the description of devices adequate for performing this testing. In relation to that, will be updating background, description, rationale and references. 

10/02/2019 

Interim review to update coding and add A4604, A7027 and A7046 to frequency table on page 6. No other changes made. 

07/17/2019 

Corrected typo in policy section. No other changes. 

05/13/2019 

Updated policy section. No other changes. 

05/02/2019 

Annual review, updating policy verbiage regarding supervised polysomnography from: Supervised polysomnography in a sleep laboratory may be considered MEDICALLY NECESSARY as a diagnostic test in patients with any of the following (1-3): Also updated description, background, policy guidelines, rationale and references 

01/01/2019 

Corrected 'Nasal' typo under section Compliance Documentation (A7032), per Suzanne Owczarczak email on 1/11/2019.

07/09/2018 

Interim review to expand medical necessity criteria related to oral appliances. Expansion allows that failed APAP trial is no longer required for patients with greater than 5 and less than or equal to 30 AHI/hr. If greater than 30 AHI/ hr, will still require APAP trial unless contraindicated. No other changes made. 

05/28/2018 

Annual review, adding investigational statement related to palate and mandible expansion devices. Also updating description, background, regulatory status, rationale and references. 

05/25/2017 

Annual review, no change to policy intent. Updating background, description, rationale and references. 

02/13/2017 

Interim review, removing CPAP as the standard of care and replacing it with APAP. 

05/16/2016 

Annual review, no change to policy intent. Updating background, description, related policies, guidelines, rationale and references.

07/10/2015 

Correcting annual review from May. Returning a missing paragraph to the policy.

05/13/2015 

Annual review,updated background, description, rationale, references, guidelines, benefit application, rationale and references. Added coding. Significant changes to policy criteria for home based and laboratory based sleep studies. Also added a statement that screening of bariatric surgery patients may be medically necessary.

 3/31/2014

Annual review.  Updated description, background, guidelines, benefit applications, rationale and references. Added related policy. Added the following language to the policy section:The use of an abbreviated daytime sleep study (PAP-NAP) as a supplement to standard sleep studies is considered investigational. Multiple sleep latency testing is considered not medically necessary in the diagnosis of OSA except to exclude or confirm  narcoplepsy in the diagnostic workup of OSA syndrome.  auto-adjusting CPAP may be considered medically necessary during a 2-week trial to initiate and titrate CPAP in adult patients with clinically significant OSA.  the word "single" has been added to the policy verbiage regarding unattended home sleep study.

03/4/2014

Added policy verbiage, reference and rationale indicating that oral pressure therapy (Winx Sleep Therapy System) is investigational.


Go Back