Neurofeedback describes techniques of providing feedback about neuronal activity, as measured by electroencephalogram biofeedback, functional magnetic resonance imaging or near-infrared spectroscopy, to teach patients to self-regulate brain activity. Neurofeedback may use several techniques in an attempt to normalize unusual patterns of brain function in patients with various psychiatric and central nervous system disorders.
For individuals who have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who receive neurofeedback, the evidence includes randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses. Relevant outcomes are symptoms, functional outcomes and quality of life. At least 5 moderate-sized RCTs (N range, 90-102 patients) have examined neurofeedback in comparison with methylphenidate, attention skills training or cognitive therapy. These trials found either a small benefit or no benefit of neurofeedback. Studies that have attempted to use active controls have suggested that at least part of the effect of neurofeedback may be due to attention skills training, relaxation training and/or other nonspecific effects. In addition, the beneficial effects are more likely to be reported by evaluators who are not blinded to treatment (parents) than by evaluators who are more likely to be blinded (teachers), suggesting bias in the nonblinded evaluations. The meta-analysis also found no effect of neurofeedback on objective measures of attention and inhibition. Additional research with blinded evaluation of outcomes is needed to demonstrate an effect of neurofeedback on ADHD. The evidence is insufficient to determine the effects of the technology on health outcomes.
For individuals who have disorders other than ADHD who receive neurofeedback, the evidence includes case reports, case series, comparative cohorts and small RCTs. Relevant outcomes are symptoms, functional outcomes and quality of life. For these other disorders, including psychiatric, neurologic and pain syndromes, the evidence is poor and several questions on clinical efficacy remain to be answered.
Larger RCTs that include either a sham or active control are needed to evaluate the effect of neurofeedback for these conditions. The evidence is insufficient to determine the effects of the technology on health outcomes.
Disorders of the Central Nervous System
Various of disorders involve abnormal brain activity, including autism spectrum disorder, insomnia and sleep disorders, learning disabilities, Tourette syndrome, traumatic brain injury, seizure disorders, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, menopausal hot flashes, depression, stress management, panic and anxiety disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance abuse disorders, eating disorders, migraine headaches, stroke, Parkinson disease, fibromyalgia, tinnitus, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Neurofeedback is being investigated for the treatment of a variety of disorders. Neurofeedback may be conceptualized as a type of biofeedback that has traditionally used the electroencephalogram (EEG) as a source of feedback data. Neurofeedback differs from established forms of biofeedback in that the information fed back to the patient (via EEG tracings, functional magnetic resonance imaging, near-infrared spectroscopy) is a direct measure of global neuronal activity, or brain state, compared with feedback of the centrally regulated physiologic processes, such as tension of specific muscle groups or skin temperature. The patient may be trained to increase or decrease the prevalence, amplitude, or frequency of specified EEG waveforms (eg, alpha, beta, theta waves), depending on the changes in brain function associated with the particular disorder. It has been proposed that training of slow cortical potentials (SCPs) can regulate cortical excitability and that using the EEG as a measure of central nervous system functioning can help train patients to modify or control their abnormal brain activity. Upregulating or downregulating neural activity with real-time feedback of functional magnetic resonance imaging signals is also being explored.
Two EEG-training protocols (training of SCPs, theta/beta training) are typically used in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. For training of SCPs, surface-negative and surface-positive SCPs are generated over the sensorimotor cortex. Negative SCPs reflect increased excitation and occur during states of behavioral or cognitive preparation, while positive SCPs are thought to indicate a reduction of cortical excitation of the underlying neural networks and appear during behavioral inhibition. In theta/beta training, the goal is to decrease activity in the EEG theta band (4-8 Hz) and increase activity in the EEG beta band (13-20 Hz), corresponding to an alert and focused but relaxed state. Alpha-theta neurofeedback is typically used in studies on substance abuse. Neurofeedback protocols for depression focus on alpha interhemispheric asymmetry and theta/beta ratio within the left prefrontal cortex. Neurofeedback for epilepsy has focused on sensorimotor rhythm up-training (increasing 12-15 Hz activity at motor strip) or altering SCPs. It has been proposed that learned alterations in EEG patterns in epilepsy are a result of operant conditioning and are not conscious or voluntary. A variety of protocols have been described for treatment of migraine headaches.
A number of EEG-feedback systems (EEG hardware and computer software programs) have been cleared for marketing through the 510(k) process. For example, the BrainMaster™ 2E (BrainMaster Technologies) is “indicated for relaxation training using alpha EEG Biofeedback. In the protocol for relaxation, BrainMaster™ provides a visual and/or auditory signal that corresponds to the patient’s increase in alpha activity as an indicator of achieving a state of relaxation.” Although devices used during neurofeedback may be subject to U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation, the process of neurofeedback itself is a procedure, and, therefore, not subject to FDA approval. FDA product codes: HCC, GWQ.
20127 Biofeedback as a Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Adults
20129 Biofeedback as a Treatment of Headache
20130 Biofeedback as a Treatment of Chronic Pain
20153 Biofeedback for Miscellaneous Indications
20164 Biofeedback as a Treatment of Fecal Incontinence or Constipation
30103 Quantitative Electroencephalography as a Diagnostic Aid for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Neurofeedback is considered INVESTIGATIONAL.
BlueCard®/National Account Issues
Neurofeedback may be administered either by a psychiatrist or psychologist.
This evidence review was created in January 1998 and has been updated regularly with searches of the MEDLINE database. The most recent literature update was performed through April 26, 2018.
Evidence reviews assess the clinical evidence to determine whether the use of a technology improves the net health outcome. Broadly defined, health outcomes are length of life, quality of life, and ability to function—including benefits and harms. Every clinical condition has specific outcomes that are important to patients and to managing the course of that condition. Validated outcome measures are necessary to ascertain whether a condition improves or worsens; and whether the magnitude of that change is clinically significant. The net health outcome is a balance of benefits and harms.
To assess whether the evidence is sufficient to draw conclusions about the net health outcome of a technology, 2 domains are examined: the relevance and the quality and credibility. To be relevant, studies must represent one or more intended clinical uses of the technology in the intended population and compare an effective and appropriate alternative at a comparable intensity. For some conditions, the alternative will be supportive care or surveillance. The quality and credibility of the evidence depend on study design and conduct, minimizing bias and confounding that can generate incorrect findings. The randomized controlled trial (RCT) is preferred to assess efficacy; however, in some circumstances, nonrandomized studies may be adequate. RCTs are rarely large enough or long enough to capture less common adverse events and long-term effects. Other types of studies can be used for these purposes and to assess generalizability to broader clinical populations and settings of clinical practice.
This review was informed by a TEC Assessment (1997).1, Literature published since that 1997 TEC Assessment consists of studies that have evaluated neurofeedback for a variety of clinical indications, with the greatest amount of scientific literature published on the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Clinical Context and Therapy Purpose
The purpose of administering neurofeedback to patients who have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is to provide a treatment option that is an alternative to or an improvement on existing therapies.
The question addressed in this evidence review is: Does neurofeedback reduce symptoms and improve functional outcomes in patients with ADHD?
The following PICOTS were used to select literature to inform this review.
The relevant population of interest is individuals with ADHD.
The therapy being considered is neurofeedback.
The following therapies currently being used: psychological therapy and pharmacologic therapy.
The general outcomes of interest are reductions in symptoms and improvements in functional outcomes.
ADHD is a chronic condition and requires long-term monitoring and follow-up. Monitoring and follow-up visits depends on whether improvements in behavior are noted. The interval for visits may occur on three or six month intervals.
Neurofeedback is provided by physical and occupational therapists in an outpatient setting.
Cortese et al (2016), on behalf of the European ADHD Guidelines Group, reported on a meta-analysis of 13 RCTs (total N=520 participants) evaluating neurofeedback for ADHD.2 When outcomes were reported by assessors who were the least likely to be blinded (parents), there were small-to-moderate effects for total symptoms, inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity (see Table 1). However, the effects were not significant when the likelihood of blinding was higher (teacher reported). There were no benefits on objective measures of attention and inhibition. The larger trials included in the meta-analysis are described in the next section.
Table 1. Summary of Meta-Analytic Outcomes
||No. of Trials
||Standardized Effect Size
||95% Confidence Interval
||0.11 to 0.59
||0.09 to 0.63
||0.08 to 0.043
||-0.08 to 0.38
||-0.24 to 0.36
||-0.05 to 0.36
Adapted from Cortese et al (2016).2,
Randomized Controlled Trials
RCTs Included in the Meta-Analysis
To control for nonspecific effects (attention training) and confounding variables (parental engagement), Gevensleben et al (2009) compared neurofeedback with a control intervention using a computerized attention skills training.3, All children were drug-naive or drug-free without concurring psychotherapy for at least 6 weeks before starting training. The 2 training conditions were designed to be as similar as possible, using computer games, positive reinforcement by a trainer, homework, and parental encouragement in using the skills and strategies learned during training in real-life situations. Both groups participated in 2 blocks of 9 sessions (»100 min/session plus a break), with 2 to 3 sessions per week, and parents were informed that both treatments were expected to be beneficial but were not informed as to which training their child had been assigned. A total of 102 children were randomized in a 3:2 ratio; 8 children were excluded due to the need for medical treatment or noncompliance with the study protocol by either the children or their parents, resulting in 59 children in neurofeedback and 35 in attention training (92% follow-up). SCPs and theta/beta training were compared by starting with 1 type of training in the first block and then the other (counterbalanced order) in the second block. Evaluations were performed by the teachers, who were not blinded to the treatment.
At the end of training/testing, there were no significant differences in parents’ attitudes toward the 2 training conditions or in the perceived motivation of their children. Approximately 40% of the parents either did not know which training their child had participated in or had guessed incorrectly. Both parents and teachers rated the neurofeedback group as more improved on the hyperactivity subcomponent of a Strength and Disabilities Questionnaire (eg, 19% vs 3% improved, respectively) and a German ADHD rating scale, the Fremdbeurteilungsbogen für Hyperkinetische Störungen (FBB-HKS; eg, 26% vs 9% improved, respectively]). Thirty (52%) children in the neurofeedback group and 10 (29%) children in the attention training group improved more than 25% on FBB-HKS scores (odds ratio, 2.68), which was the primary outcome measure. Scores on other components of the Strength and Disabilities Questionnaire¾including emotional symptoms, conduct problems, peer problems, and prosocial behavior¾did not differ between the 2 training conditions. No significant differences were noted between the 2 neurofeedback training protocols. Results of this RCT suggested that neurofeedback might have specific effects on attention and hyperactivity beyond those achieved by attention training and parental involvement. The authors noted that future studies should further address the specificity of effects and how to optimize the benefit of neurofeedback as a treatment module for ADHD.
The 6-month follow-up to this RCT was reported by Gevensleben et al (2010).4, Of the 94 children who completed treatment, 17 started medication during the follow-up interval, and parents of 16 children did not return the questionnaires. Follow-up was obtained in 61 (65%) children of the original per-protocol 102 children. Although the percentage of dropouts did not differ between groups, dropouts tended to have higher scores on the FBB-HKS, particularly in the control group. This difference in dropouts between groups limits the interpretation of the comparative data because scores in the 2 groups included in follow-up were dissimilar at baseline (eg, baseline FBB-HKS score, 1.50 for the neurofeedback group vs 1.37 for the control group). The improvement observed in the neurofeedback group after treatment appeared to be preserved at 6-month follow-up. For example, the inattention subscore of the FBB-HKS improved from 2.02 to 1.51 after treatment and remained at 1.49 at 6-month follow-up (moderate effect size [ES], 0.73). The hyperactivity/impulsivity subscore improved from 1.10 to 0.79 after treatment and remained at 0.76 at 6-month follow-up (small ES=0.35).
Steiner et al (2014) randomized 104 children ages 7 to 11 years with ADHD to neurofeedback, cognitive training, or a no-intervention control condition in an elementary school.5, Both the neurofeedback and cognitive therapies were administered with commercially available computer programs (45-minute sessions 3 times a week), monitored by a trained research assistant. The neurofeedback electroencephalogram sensor was embedded in a standard bicycle helmet with the grounding and reference sensors located on the chin straps on the mastoids. There were some small differences in baseline measures between groups. The slope of the change in scores over time was compared. Children in the neurofeedback group showed a small improvement on the Conners 3-Parent Assessment Report (ES=0.34 for inattention, ES=0.25 for executive functioning, ES=0.23 for hyperactivity/impulsivity), and subscales of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Parent Form (Global Executive Composite, ES=0.23) compared with baseline. Interpretation of these findings is limited by the use of a no-intervention control group and lack of parental blinding. Evaluator-blinded classroom observation (using Behavioral Observation of Students in Schools software) found no sustained change with a linear growth model but significant improvement with a quadratic model. No between-group difference in change in medication was observed at the 6-month follow-up.
RCTs Not Included in the Meta-Analysis
Several RCTs not included in the Cortese systematic review are described below.6,7,8,
Duric et al (2012) reported on a comparative study of neurofeedback and methylphenidate in 91 children with ADHD.6, The children were randomized into 3 groups, consisting of 30 sessions of neurofeedback, methylphenidate, or a combination of neurofeedback and methylphenidate. The neurofeedback sessions focused on the theta/beta ratio. Parental evaluations found improvements in ADHD core symptoms for all 3 groups, but no significant differences between groups. Alternative reasons for improvement with neurofeedback included the amount of time spent with the therapist and cognitive-behavioral training introduced under neurofeedback. In an analysis of self-reports from this study published by Duric et al (2014), there was no improvement in attention, hyperactivity, or school achievement when adjusted for age and sex.9, Only the neurofeedback group showed a significant improvement in self-reported school performance.
Bink et al (2015) compared neurofeedback with treatment as usual in a nonblinded multicenter RCT.7, Adolescents with clinical ADHD symptoms were stratified by age and randomized to theta/sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback plus treatment as usual (n=59) or treatment as usual only (n=31). Treatment as usual could include stimulant medication and behavioral interventions such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and counseling for patients or their parents. These treatments were comparable between groups. Neurofeedback sessions were given 2 to 3 times a week for 25 weeks. Primary outcomes included the ADHD Rating Scale, Youth Self Report, and Child Behavior Checklist. Behavioral problems decreased equally for both groups, and neurofeedback plus standard treatment was not more effective than treatment as usual alone. Follow-up at 1-year after treatment also found no benefit of neurofeedback when administered in combination with treatment as usual.10,
Gelade et al (2016) reported on a randomized comparison of neurofeedback (n=39) with either stimulants (n=36) or physical activity (n=37).8, Neurofeedback and physical activity were balanced for the number and duration of sessions (3 sessions a week for 10-12 weeks). The trial was adequately powered to detect a medium effect size. Intention-to-treat analysis with last observation carried forward showed an improvement in parent-reported behavior for all interventions, while teachers, who were not blinded to treatment, reported a decrease of ADHD symptoms only for the methylphenidate group compared with placebo.
Alegria et al (2017) investigated the efficacy of real-time functional magnetic resonance neurofeedback (rtfMRI-NF) in adolescents with ADHD.11, This single-blind RCT consisted of 31 boys with ADHD (12-17 years old) who, over 2 weeks, underwent an average of 11 rtfMRI-NF sessions. The boys were assigned to rtfMRI-NF testing of the right inferior prefrontal cortex (n=18) or to a control group (n=13);testing of the left parahippocampal gyrus. The rtfMRI-NF testing sessions were visually engaging, and patients were asked to interact with the visuals but given very little coaching. Feedback was provided through video and images. Another session without feedback tested learning retention. The primary outcome measure was the ADHD Rating Scale, Version IV, a standard tool for assessing ADHD symptoms according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders12,; the secondary outcome measure was the revised Conners’ Parent Rating Scale for ADHD. Both assessment tools were rated by parents. ADHD-related difficulties and functional impairments were assessed with the Weekly Parent Ratings of Evening and Morning Behavior-Revised and the Columbia Impairment Scale-Parent version, respectively. Active and control groups did not differ by type of ADHD-prescribed medication (p=0.3). Groups did not differ in their rtfMRI-NF performance score gain between final and baseline rtfMRI-NF testing sessions (mean prefrontal cortex score, 2.22; mean parahippocampal gyrus score, 10.00; p=0.43). Mean ADHD Rating Scale, Version IV scores were 36.72 and 37.77 in the prefrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus groups, respectively (p=0.78). This proof-of-concept study was limited by its sample size, population bias (only males), and rtfMRI-NF testing session completion rates.
In a triple-blind RCT conducted in Germany, Schönenberg et al (2017) identified 113 adults with ADHD and randomized them to neurofeedback (n=37) or sham neurofeedback (n=38) or meta-cognitive therapy (MCT; n=38).13, Patients in the neurofeedback group received 30 verum θ-to-β neurofeedback sessions over 15 weeks; sham neurofeedback patients received 15 sham followed by 15 verum θ-to-β neurofeedback sessions over 15 weeks, and the MCT patients received 12 sessions over 12 weeks. Patients in the neurofeedback and sham neurofeedback groups were masked to treatment assignment; however, patients in the MCT group knew their treatment assignment. The primary outcome was symptom score on the Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scale, which was measured before, during (week 8), and after treatment (at week 16 and at 6 months). At the 6-month follow-up, patients in all treatment groups reported a reduction in ADHD symptoms (B = -2.58; 95% confidence interval, -3.48 to -1.68; p<0.001; neurofeedback vs sham neurofeedback, B = -0.89; 95% confidence interval, -2.14 to 0.37; p=0.168; neurofeedback vs MCT, -0.30; 95% confidence interval, -1.55 to 0.95; p=0.639). Reviewers concluded that neurofeedback training is not superior to sham or MCT but that all 3 treatments have merit in managing ADHD.
In a blinded RCT, Zilverstand et al (2017) investigated the utility of rtfMRI-NF when used to target the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, which is a part of the brain that harnesses cognition and motor control, in adults with ADHD.14, Trialists sought to use rtfMRI-NF training to reduce clinical symptoms and improve cognitive functioning. Thirteen individuals (7 active, 6 control) underwent 4 weekly training of mental exercises designed to help them learn how to upregulate dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation. The analysis of self-regulation performance during the training runs revealed learning effects in both groups. There was no significant difference between control and an active group (p=0.38), but both groups showed significant improvements in activation level between the second and the third sessions; moreover, activation levels remained to stay high until training completion (p<0.05). Small sample size limited this trial, though results suggested neurofeedback training might improve cognitive function.
Section Summary: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
At least 6 moderately sized RCTs (N range, 90-113 patients) have compared neurofeedback with methylphenidate, attention skills training, and/or cognitive therapy. These studies found either small or no benefit of neurofeedback. Studies using active controls have suggested that at least part of the effect of neurofeedback might be due to attention skills training, relaxation training, and/or other nonspecific effects. One RCT investigated neurofeedback in the right inferior prefrontal cortex. Another RCT assessed the utility of neurofeedback used to target the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. All RCTs indicated that any beneficial effects were more likely to be reported by evaluators unblinded to treatment (parents), than by evaluators blinded (teachers) to treatment, which would suggest bias in the nonblinded evaluations. Moreover, a meta-analysis found no effect of neurofeedback on objective measures of attention and inhibition. Additional research with blinded evaluation of outcomes is needed to demonstrate an effect of neurofeedback on ADHD.
Disorders Other Than ADHD
Clinical Context and Therapy Purpose
The purpose of neurofeedback in patients who have other psychiatric, central nervous system, or pain disorders is to provide a treatment option that is an alternative to or an improvement on existing therapies.
The question addressed in this evidence review is: Does neurofeedback reduce symptoms and improve functional outcomes in patients with other psychiatric, central nervous system, or pain disorders?
The following PICOTS were used to select literature to inform this review.
The relevant population of interest is individuals with other psychiatric, central nervous system, or pain disorders.
The therapy being considered is neurofeedback.
The following therapies currently being used: behavioral therapy and pharmacologic therapy.
The general outcomes of interest are a reduction in symptoms and improvements in functional outcomes.
The interval for monitoring and follow-up visits depends on whether improvements in symptoms are noted. The interval for visits may occur on three, six month or longer intervals as clinically indicated.
Neurofeedback is provided by physical and occupational therapists in an outpatient setting.
Tan et al (2009), in a meta-analysis, identified 63 studies on neurofeedback for treatment of epilepsy.15, Ten of the 63 studies met inclusion criteria; 9 of these studies included fewer than 10 subjects. The studies were published between 1974 and 2001 and used a pre/post design in patients with epilepsy refractory to medical treatment; only 1 controlled study was included. Meta-analysis showed a small ES for treatment (-0.233), with a likelihood of publication bias based on funnel plot. Updated literature searches have not identified any recent RCTs on the treatment of epilepsy with neurofeedback.
A systematic review by Sokhadze et al (2008) of neurofeedback as a treatment for substance abuse disorders described difficulties in assessing the efficacy of this and other substance abuse treatments.16, Study shortcomings included a lack of clearly established outcome measures, differing effects of the various drugs, the presence of comorbid conditions, the absence of a criterion standard treatment, and use as an add-on to other behavioral treatment regimens. Reviewers concluded that alpha-theta training, when combined with an inpatient rehabilitation program for alcohol dependency or stimulant abuse, would be classified as level 3 or “probably efficacious.” This level is based on beneficial effects shown in multiple observational studies, clinical studies, wait-list control studies, or within-subject or between-subject replication studies. Reviewers also noted that few large-scale studies of neurofeedback in addictive disorders have been reported and that the evidence for alpha-theta training has not been shown to be superior to sham treatment.
Pediatric Brain Tumor Survivors
De Ruiter et al (2016) reported on a multicenter, triple-blinded RCT of neurofeedback in 80 pediatric brain tumor survivors who had cognitive impairments.17, The specific neurofeedback module was based on individual electroencephalogram, and participants, parents, trainers, and researchers handling the data were blinded to assignment to the active or sham neurofeedback module. At the end of training and 6-month follow-up, there were no significant differences between the neurofeedback and sham feedback groups on the primary outcome measures for cognitive performance, which included attention, processing speed, memory, executive functioning, visuomotor integration, and intelligence.
Literature searches and a systematic review by Schoenberg et al (2014) assessing biofeedback for psychiatric and neurologic disorders18, have identified small studies (case reports, case series, comparative cohorts, small RCTs) of neurofeedback for the following conditions:
- Autism spectrum disorder19,20,
- Cigarette cravings21,
- Depression and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis24,
- Depression in alcohol addiction18,
- Dissociative identity disorder18,
- Childhood obesity29,
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder30,31,
- Parkinson disease32,
- Posttraumatic stress disorder18,33,
- Tourette syndrome.35,
Section Summary: Disorders Other Than ADHD
The evidence for neurofeedback in individuals with disorders other than ADHD includes case reports, case series, comparative cohorts, small RCTs, and systematic reviews of these studies. For these disorders, the evidence is poor, and a number of questions regarding clinical efficacy remain unanswered. Larger RCTs that include either a sham or active control are needed to evaluate the effect of neurofeedback for these conditions.
Summary of Evidence
For individuals who have ADHD who receive neurofeedback, the evidence includes RCTs and a meta-analysis. Relevant outcomes are symptoms, functional outcomes, and quality of life. At least 6 moderately sized RCTs (N range, 90-113 patients) have compared neurofeedback with methylphenidate, attention skills training, and/or cognitive therapy. These trials found either small or no benefit of neurofeedback. Studies that used active controls have suggested that, at least part of the effect of neurofeedback may be due to attention skills training, relaxation training, and/or other nonspecific effects. Also, the beneficial effects are more likely to be reported by evaluators unblinded to treatment (parents) than by evaluators blinded (teachers) to treatment, suggesting bias in the nonblinded evaluations. A meta-analysis also found no effect of neurofeedback on objective measures of attention and inhibition. Additional research with blinded evaluation of outcomes is needed to demonstrate an effect of neurofeedback on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The evidence is insufficient to determine the effects of the technology on health outcomes.
For individuals who have disorders other than ADHD (eg, epilepsy, substance abuse, pediatric brain tumors) who receive neurofeedback, the evidence includes case reports, case series, comparative cohorts, and small RCTs. Relevant outcomes are symptoms, functional outcomes, and quality of life. For these other disorders, including psychiatric, neurologic, and pain syndromes, the evidence is poor, and several questions concerning clinical efficacy remain unanswered. Larger RCTs that include either a sham or active control are needed to evaluate the effect of neurofeedback for these conditions. The evidence is insufficient to determine the effects of the technology on health outcomes.
Practice Guidelines and Position Statements
American Academy of Pediatrics
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP; 2011) published clinical practice guidelines on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents.36 AAP stated that although electroencephalogram biofeedback is used clinically, it is not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of ADHD and requires further research. In a 2012 report, AAP revised its position on biofeedback, designating it as a “Level 1 - Best Support” treatment for children with ADHD.37, In 2014, AAP further supported its position, stating that neurofeedback “can contribute to lasting improvements” for children with ADHD,38, citing the Steiner et al (2014)5 article.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2013) issued guidance on management and support of children on the autism spectrum.39, The Institute stated that the a number of treatments were considered but are not recommended, including neurofeedback.
International Society for Neurofeedback & Research
The International Society for Neurofeedback & Research (2011) published a position paper on standards of practice for neurofeedback and neurotherapy.40 Issues discussed mostly addressed professional issues.
European Society for the Study of Tourette Syndrome
Clinical guidelines on behavioral and psychosocial interventions for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders were published in 2011 by the European Society for the Study of Tourette Syndrome. The guidelines considered neurofeedback experimental.41,
American Psychological Association
The American Psychological Association has provided general information on biofeedback (including neurofeedback) on its website, stating that “Biofeedback helps treat some illness, may boost performance, helps people relax and is even used to help children with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder.”42,
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and American Psychiatric Association
No information on neurofeedback was identified from the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry or the American Psychiatric Association.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations
Ongoing and Unpublished Clinical Trials
Some currently unpublished trials that might influence this review are listed in Table 2.
Table 2. Summary of Key Trials
Multidisciplinary Tools for Improving the Efficacy of Public Prevention Measures Against Smoking
Does Neurofeedback and Working Memory Training Improve Core Symptoms of ADHD in Children and Adolescents? A Comparative, Randomized and Controlled Study
Neurofeedback Study ADHD
Double-Blind 2-Site Randomized Clinical Trial of Neurofeedback for ADHD
Efficacy of a Neurofeedback Treatment in Adults With ADHD: a Double-blind Randomized Placebo-controlled Study
||Sep 2015 (unknown)
Pain and Sleep Quality Measures Before and After a Course of EEG Neurofeedback in Fibromyalgia Patients
||Oct 2016 (unknown)
Improving Mental Attention, Timing of Muscle Activation and Reactive Balance Control in Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial
|| Jul 2017 (unknown)
Effectiveness of a Personalized Neurofeedback Training Device (ADHD@Home) as Compared With Methylphenidate in the Treatment of Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Multicentre Randomized Clinical Study
||Jul 2017 (unknown)
NCT: national clinical trial.
a Denotes industry-sponsored or cosponsored trial.
- Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association Technology Evaluation Center (TEC). Neurofeedback. TEC Assessments 1997;Volume 12:Tab 21.
- Cortese S, Ferrin M, Brandeis D, et al. Neurofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: meta-analysis of clinical and neuropsychological outcomes from randomized controlled trials. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. Jun 2016;55(6):444-455. PMID 27238063
- Gevensleben H, Holl B, Albrecht B, et al. Is neurofeedback an efficacious treatment for ADHD? A randomised controlled clinical trial. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. Jul 2009;50(7):780-789. PMID 19207632
- Gevensleben H, Holl B, Albrecht B, et al. Neurofeedback training in children with ADHD: 6-month follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. May 25 2010;19(9):715-724. PMID 20499120
- Steiner NJ, Frenette EC, Rene KM, et al. In-school neurofeedback training for ADHD: sustained improvements from a randomized control trial. Pediatrics. Mar 2014;133(3):483-492. PMID 24534402
- Duric NS, Assmus J, Gundersen D, et al. Neurofeedback for the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD: a randomized and controlled clinical trial using parental reports. BMC Psychiatry. Aug 2012;12:107. PMID 22877086
- Bink M, van Nieuwenhuizen C, Popma A, et al. Behavioral effects of neurofeedback in adolescents with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. Sep 2015;24(9):1035-1048. PMID 25477074
- Gelade K, Janssen TW, Bink M, et al. Behavioral effects of neurofeedback compared to stimulants and physical activity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry. Oct 2016;77(10):e1270-e1277. PMID 27631143
- Duric NS, Assmus J, Elgen IB. Self-reported efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in a clinical randomized controlled study of ADHD children and adolescents. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. Sep 2014;10:1645-1654. PMID 25214789
- Bink M, Bongers IL, Popma A, et al. 1-year follow-up of neurofeedback treatment in adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: randomised controlled trial. BJPsych Open. Mar 2016;2(2):107-115. PMID 27703763
- Alegria AA, Wulff M, Brinson H, et al. Real-time fMRI neurofeedback in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Hum Brain Mapp. Jun 2017;38(6):3190-3209. PMID 28342214
- Dupaul DG, Power TJ, Anastopoulos AD, et al. ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Checklists, Norms, and Clinical Interpretations. New York, NY: Guilford; 1998.
- Schönenberg M, Wiedemann E, Schneidt A, et al. Neurofeedback, sham neurofeedback, and cognitive-behavioural group therapy in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a triple-blind, randomised, controlled trial. Lancet Psychiatry. Sep 2017;4(9):673-684. PMID 28803030
- Zilverstand A, Sorger B, Slaats-Willemse D, et al. fMRI neurofeedback training for increasing anterior cingulate cortex activation in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. an exploratory randomized, single-blinded study. PLoS One. Jan 26 2017;12(1):e0170795. PMID 28125735
- Tan G, Thornby J, Hammond DC, et al. Meta-analysis of EEG biofeedback in treating epilepsy. Clin EEG Neurosci. Jul 2009;40(3):173-179. PMID 19715180
- Sokhadze TM, Cannon RL, Trudeau DL. EEG biofeedback as a treatment for substance use disorders: review, rating of efficacy, and recommendations for further research. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. Mar 2008;33(1):1-28. PMID 18214670
- de Ruiter MA, Oosterlaan J, Schouten-van Meeteren AY, et al. Neurofeedback ineffective in paediatric brain tumour survivors: Results of a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Cancer. Sep 2016;64:62-73. PMID 27343714
- Schoenberg PL, David AS. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. Jun 2014;39(2):109-135. PMID 24806535
- Jarusiewicz B. Efficacy of neurofeedback for children in the autism spectrum: a pilot study. J Neurother. Sep 8 2002;6(4):39-49. PMID
- Sokhadze EM, El-Baz AS, Tasman A, et al. Neuromodulation integrating rTMS and neurofeedback for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder: an exploratory study. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. Dec 2014;39(3-4):237-257. PMID 25267414
- Kim DY, Yoo SS, Tegethoff M, et al. The inclusion of functional connectivity information into fMRI-based neurofeedback improves its efficacy in the reduction of cigarette cravings. J Cogn Neurosci. Mar 11 2015:1-21. PMID 25761006
- Linden DE, Habes I, Johnston SJ, et al. Real-time self-regulation of emotion networks in patients with depression. PLoS One. Jun 2012;7(6):e38115. PMID 22675513
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Individual psychophysiological therapy incorporating biofeedback training by any modality (face-to-face with the patient), with psychotherapy; code range
||Biofeedback training by any modality
||Other individual psychotherapy (includes biofeedback)
||Investigational for all diagnoses
|ICD-10-CS (effective 10/01/15)
||Investigational for all diagnosis
|ICD-10-PCS (effective 10/01/15)
||ICD-10-PCS codes arely used for inpatient services
||Mental health biofeedback, other biofeedback
|Type of Service
|Place of Service
Procedure and diagnosis codes on Medical Policy documents are included only as a general reference tool for each policy. They may not be all-inclusive.
This medical policy was developed through consideration of peer-reviewed medical literature generally recognized by the relevant medical community, U.S. FDA approval status, nationally accepted standards of medical practice and accepted standards of medical practice in this community, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association technology assessment program (TEC) and other non-affiliated technology evaluation centers, reference to federal regulations, other plan medical policies and accredited national guidelines.
"Current Procedural Terminology© American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved"
History From 2014 Forward
Annual review, no change to policy intent. Updating background, rationale and references.
Annual review, no change to policy intent.
Annual review, no change to policy intent. Updating background, description, rationale and references.
Annual review, no change to policy intent. Updating background, description, rationale and references. Adding regulatory status.
Annual review, no change to policy intent. Updated rationale and references. Added coding.
Annual review, added related policies, benefit application. Updated background, description, rationale and references. No change to policy intent.